chapter  5
9 Aftermath of conquest
Pages 4

English security in Wales was assured by the building of the great castles, Conway, Carnarvon, Harlech and Beaumaris, all designed to be supplied by sea so that their garrisons could not be starved into submission, which ring Snowdonia and are the most enduring physical memorial to Edward I.8 Welsh lands were shared out among the most trusted of Edward’s followers, and Englishmen were settled in planned fortified boroughs such as Conway and Flint. A number of existing castles were rebuilt and given English garrisons, while the remainder were dismantled. Llywelyn’s own lands-much of the western half of Wales-were retained in the hands of the English Crown, greatly increasing royal power in relation to the Marcher lords.