There were two prime movers for industrial legislation. One was Robert Owen, a self-made Scottish industrialist turned social reformer who set out to demonstrate that improved working and living conditions brought advantage to factory owners as well as their workers. Owen’s model cotton mill and workers’ housing project at New Lanark, near Glasgow, in the early 1820s attracted few imitators, and he turned to encouraging industrial workers to help themselves via the formation of trade unions. The second was Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury from 1851 and previously a Tory MP for Dorset. His inspiration for industrial reform came from religiously-based humanitarianism and old-fashioned aristocratic paternalism.