The role of middle and ﬁrst-line managers
The role of middle and ﬁrst-line managers in prisons is an area that has been almost completely ignored in academic research. This is in contrast to prison ofﬁcers (e.g. Kauffman 1988; Lombardo 1989; Liebling and Price 2001; Crawley 2004) and governors (e.g. DiIulio 1987; Bryans and Wilson 2000), both of whom have attracted the interest of researchers. However, this group are signiﬁcant not only in terms of numbers, but also in terms of their potential impact on the management of the prison and the lives of those who live and work there.