Investigative interviewing and the detection of deception
The Improving Interpersonal Evaluations for Law Enforcement and National Security technique
The Improving Interpersonal Evaluations for Law Enforcement and National Security technique (IIE) is derived from observations of reallife ﬁeld interviews combined with the latest scientiﬁc behavioural analysis. It originated in the dissatisfaction of working police towards their interviewing training. This dissatisfaction caused J.J. Newberry (US Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, now retired) to observe the techniques of the most successful working police ofﬁcers (those who when they chose to charge a suspect typically obtained a conviction, and who other ofﬁcers viewed as being the most effective interviewers). These observations were elaborated and reﬁned, based upon close contact with behavioural scientists with expertise in human memory, emotion and expressive verbal and non-verbal behaviour, including deception (e.g. Yuille 1989; Ekman and Frank 1993, Newberry 1999; Ekman 1985/2001; Frank and Ekman 1997, 2004a, 2004b; O’Sullivan 2005). In summary, this approach noted that good police interviewers were excellent communicators. They listened well, built good rapport with their interviewees and they were sharp observers of verbal and non-verbal behaviours, which included being good detectors of deceit. The techniques of these good interviewers were quantiﬁed by the behavioural scientists and then developed into training packages that addressed building the individual skills along with full application of the techniques to live interviews.