Social capital from carbon property: creating equity for indigenous people
The history of natural-resource mismanagement is well documented. The forest sector is no diﬀerent, with development programmes and objectives taking little notice of the needs or rights of forest communities. The marginalization of forest communities has been rapid and ongoing to the extent that many now form the core of the rural poor in the world today. The disparity relating to the recognition of rights and opportunity to gain the freedoms that underpin development has occurred through the exclusion of forest communities from development planning and programs. This exclusion has resulted in widespread failure of forest-management systems, and the loss of essential services provided by forests. For any carbon-trading system this in and of itself represents the biggest threat to the integrity of forest based carbon sinks.