Participatory Resettlement: Key Issues and Processes in Resettlement in Xiaolangdi and Hexi
Development projects, particularly in the areas of water conservancy and hydropower, can result in substantial removal and reconstruction activities. If the problems are not resolved appropriately, many difficulties can be created, both for production and for the living standards of the resettlers. Resettlement can also produce conflicts. If these risks are not adequately managed, serious social problems can emerge, resulting in impoverishment. Since the 1950s, a total of 45 million people have been resettled in China, with 12 million alone resettled as a result of dam construction.2 According to an investigation in 1985, after resettlement about one-third of dam resettlers lived in poverty. These people are vulnerable in the areas of land, grain, employment, housing, transportation, water supply, education, and health. After 1985, resettlement became a major issue in China. Relevant policy and legal systems have been established and improved. The management of resettlement has been greatly improved, and compensation standards have become more realistic. Currently, lack of adequate community participation is becoming an important issue in resettlement, and is already important in research on resettlement.