Housing Wastewater Solutions
Many ecological impacts originate from the management of individual household water/wastewater cycles. This chapter explores the potentials of a closed system approach to the design of a single household with regard to water usage. Water resource management involves the supply of clean water, and disposal of the undesirable nutrients added to this clean water. Distance is a crucial design element because, for example, the cost of transporting water has a great bearing on the net energy and resource costs: pipelines require energy to fabricate, construct, and maintain. In residential developments the basic stipulations apply as in urban-scale solid waste management practice: reduce demand, reuse whenever possible, and recycle if necessary within a small geographical distance. Wetlands, a self-regulating treatment method, consist of reeds and other water plants instead of compressors to pump oxygen into the wastewater. There are many existing alternatives for individual on site and shared water treatment systems.