Industrial ecology is an emerging field of research and practice based on a set of global principles for framing the design of technology and the deployment of industrial infrastructure. The industrial ecology framework is based on an analysis of ecosystems and industrial infrastructure in terms of flows of materials. Industrial ecology addresses the global scale and environmental impacts of industry with a new approach focused on material flows. Carbon dioxide from industry is a major dissipative flow of material, industrial ecology would aim for the decarbonisation of energy. Energy would be required to move materials through the cyclic loop and periodically reprocess them for reuse. Materials and energy are continually circulated and transformed in extremely elegant ways. Industry draws materials from the Earth's crust and the biosphere, processes them with fossil energy to derive transient economic value, and dumps the residue back into nature.