chapter  8
20 Pages

Health: Health and Sustainable Development – Addressing the Challenges Post-Johannesburg

Today countries face a myriad of health-related problems relating, on the one hand, to poverty and a lack of access to basic services and resources, and, on the other, to large-scale, rapid industrialization, urbanization, demographic change and technological development. The problems facing the health sector are increasingly complex, multidisciplinary in nature, often ill defined and have uncertain solutions. The emergence of the concept of sustainable development as a guiding principle for policy formulation in health and other sectors, the adoption at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in 1992 of Agenda 21, the subsequent adoption of the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21, and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI) negotiated at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) (UN, 2002a) have been important stimuli at international, national and local levels for putting health high on the international development agenda.