Tracking Outcomes of Social and Institutional Innovations in Natural Resource Management
Much of the literature on NRM refers to social institutions as mediating factors that govern the relationship between a community and the natural resources upon which it depends. The relationship between social capital and natural capital is emphasized (Ostrom, 2000b; Bowles and Gintis, 2002; Pre�y, 2003). Social capital is usually deﬁned as the features of social organization (social networks, social interactions, norms, trust, reciprocity and cooperation) that facilitate coordination and cooperation and that enable people to act collectively for mutual beneﬁts (Woolcock and Narayan, 2000). It encompasses the nature and strength of existing relationships between members, the ability of members to organize themselves for mutually beneﬁcial collective action, and the skills and abilities that community members can contribute to the development process (Uphoﬀ and Wĳayaratna, 2000).