Long-term natural resource management research in intensive production systems: ICARDA’s experience in Egypt Richard Tutwiler
The CIAL movement is still young, and its future evolution is uncertain. Properly managed, CIALs can deliver substantial growth and equity benefits. However, their effects on the sustainability of production are less predictable. By allowing adaptive research to be devolved to the farming community, CIALs cut the costs of formal research while increasing its impact.