Regulating for the Poor
In much of the developing world, low-income households do not enjoy access to safe, convenient and reasonably priced water services at the same level as their wealthier counterparts at home and abroad. Over the past two decades governments have implemented infrastructure reforms, usually involving neo-liberal economic strategies as promoted by international financing institutions (Cook et al, 2003; Nickson and Franceys, 2003). Although the policy changes in the water sector are now less markedly inclined towards private sector participation, utility ownership, operation and oversight functions have become redefined in attempts to improve water utilities performance. The various models of regulation that have been experimented with and the very specific challenges to regulation that have emerged in developing-country settings are the subject of this chapter.