Industrial Risk Management in India Since Bhopal
The Bhopal accident marked a watershed in 20th-century industrial safety. It injured, displaced or killed record numbers of people, and caused untold delays in treating and compensating victims (Morehouse and Subramaniam, 1986; Shrivastava 1987a, 1987c, 1992; see also Chapter 2 in Volume I). The accident also had far-reaching effects on the chemical industry’s management of hazards in both developed and developing countries. Many studies have addressed the responses in Europe and North America (Stover, 1985; Shrivastava, 1987a, 1992; Kletz, 1988; Hadden, 1994; van Eijndhoven, 1994). But India, of course, was the country most directly and profoundly affected by the accident. Accordingly, we enquire in this chapter into social learning and institutional responses to industrial risk in India after Bhopal, particularly in the area of legal and regulatory developments and the implementation of hazard assessment and management systems.