Subsistence issues by Alan R Pierce
Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) provide food, medicine, shelter and income for hundreds of millions of people worldwide. In subsistence economies, NTFPs serve as barter or gifts, and their exchange maintains friendship and kinship ties, enhances local traditions, enforces the concepts of mutual aid and respect and supports other norms that stabilize and enrich community life. The issue of subsistence use of NTFPs is so complex and critical that it deserves special attention as a subject area within social issues that deal with forest operations. Any forest policy or initiative, certification included, seeking to fully address social and equity issues requires a deep and respectful understanding of subsistence.