Conclusions and recommendations by Patricia Shanley, Sarah A Laird,
Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are not inherently ideal candidates for certification. They are most commonly consumed at a subsistence level, are traded locally and regionally, and most are not featured in markets open to ‘green’ or ‘fairtrade’ messages. Only in a few exceptional cases do NTFPs find their way into international markets that may be receptive to ecolabelling – for instance, the luxury food, medicinal herb and floral trades. Many NTFPs are harvested from forest areas by individuals who live at the margins of economic and political systems. Such harvesters are loath to comply with added regulations, not only because the regulations are anathema in and of themselves, but also because such added oversight involves extra costs and monitoring that may lower or negate their profits.