Previous sections of the book introduced principles of transition processes, of sustainable production and of (improved) crop production systems (Section I), as well as innovative technologies to use plant biomass to produce chemicals or chemical building blocks, transport fuels, electricity, biogas or materials, applying principles of biorefining (Section II). Other sections discussed the role of different groups of actors in the formulation of societal response to introduction and implementation of new technological innovations (Section III), or showed how such interactions might work out in practice (Section IV). Among them, the chapters have described relevant biobased innovations, their introduction in society, and the response that was formulated by different (groups of) actors. By doing so, the book has provided analytical frameworks and new technological applications, as well as practical examples. While the technologies described in Section II might have a far reaching
impact (when implemented), it is too early to determine their impact or the societal response that might follow their introduction. Implementation of these innovative technologies generally has been limited, implementation so far mainly focusing on biomass use for production of energy or transport fuel, plus traditional applications in materials (surfactants, lubricants, fibres, surfactants). Bioenergy, biofuels and biomaterials may be produced in production chains that are organized similar to their fossil counterparts, but this is not necessarily the case (Chapter 14). Food/feed industries often still remain separated from energy production chains, transportation or chemistry. If they do, mutual links mainly consist in the use of each others (by-)products, not in combined input use or integrated production organization. More advanced uses of biomass (e.g. to produce chemicals or chemical building blocks) or organization of production processes (e.g. organized exchange of heat, mutual feedback of co-products, integrated approaches to reap the full potential of biomass feedstocks) are still relatively scarce, although there is a clear tendency for increasing integration.