The Role and Experiences of Badan Rehabilitasi dan Rekonstuksi (BRR) Fuad Mardhatillah (State Institute of Islamic Studies, IAIN Ar-Raniry, Banda Aceh)
Disasters have marred almost the whole of modern Acehnese history. They have included natural disaster (such as the tsunami) and the traumas resulting from them, and also the ‘disasters’ resulting from man-made conflict. The significance of conflict has often been overlooked in efforts to develop Aceh in the wider context, not just in terms of physical infrastructure but also in terms of human capital. The conflict between GAM and the Republic of Indonesia, which raged from 4 December 1976 (following the Banda Aceh Proclamation at Bukit Tiro) to the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding in Helsinki on 15 August 2005, resulted in the destruction of infrastructure, community demoralization, and significant loss of life.2 The resulting destruction of the social infrastructure has been an important impediment to the successful development of the region. The earthquake and subsequent tsunami on Boxing Day 2004, that
measured about 9.0 on the Richter scale, destroyed everything that stood along a major portion of the western coast of the province of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD). Another earthquake, on 28 March 2005 struck Aceh again and crippled the communities of the nearby Nias Archipelago. Efforts to reconstruct these two regions were immediately begun by the government of Indonesia and its partner organizations. Two and a half weeks after the Nias earthquake, President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (SBY) announced a master plan for the reconstruction of Aceh and Nias that had been developed by the Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional (National Development Planning Agency, Bappenas).3 A day later, SBY formed the Badan Rehabilitasi dan Rekonstruksi NAD-Nias (NAD-Nias Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Agency, BRR).4 In the following two weeks, BRR’s leadership was sworn in. From that time, the wheels of rehabilitation and reconstruction began to turn.