Conclusions and Recommendations
To mitigate the potential risks of volcano tourism, effective warning and rescue systems and community awareness-raising programmes need to be in place at every volcanic destination. Efficient cooperation and coordination between the authorities in charge and tourism organizations as well as with tour operators is important to ensure that every stakeholder is aware of the current state of a volcano, as far as that is possible. Community awareness is, however, different from visitor awareness; many affected areas have invested in educating the communities who live in close proximity to active volcanoes, because people who live near volcanoes multiply their exposure by 365 in contrast to tourists visiting for a day only. BUT, while the potential risk of living near an active volcano pertains to millions of local residents, it is mainly the tourists (their numbers are also in millions annually) who are going to see active craters and lava flows up close. Local residents do not visit their volcanoes every day; their exposure is not as imminent as that of the visitors, who want to look into active craters and view eruptive activity from as close as possible.