Experimental methods for the energy characterization of buildings
DEFINITIONS Residential building/apartment: A residential building or apartmentmay be composed of one ormore spaces enclosed by walls, ceilings and ﬂoors. The building must be situated above the ground and be utilized as a dwelling. At least 70% of the space within the envelope must be used for this purpose. This volume should be heated to at leastX◦Cduring Y hours of the year. (ValuesX andY are to be determined on a national level). Energy use: Any form of fuel or electricity, which is actively supplied to the building with the intent of conditioning the living space, heating water and operating energy systems and household appliances. Energy use is given on an annual basis, kWh/(year ·building unit). Global energy use: Total energy use of the whole residential building or apartment. This value can be actual or normalized. Speciﬁc energy use: Energy use with an explicit function, which, when taken with the other speciﬁc energy uses, adds up to the total energy consumption of a whole residential building. The types of speciﬁc energy use are space heating, space cooling, tap-water heating, appliances and external energy. The value can be actual or normalized. Energy conversion system: Any system or device in the building with the purpose of converting fuels or energy into work or heat. Energy conversion system efﬁciency: The ratio between delivered and supplied energy of an energy conversion system. Supplied energy: Energy (or an equivalent quantity) that is actively supplied to the conversion systems of the residence. Supplied energy is often referred to as billed energy. Delivered energy:Energy that is delivered into the residential living space through energy conversion systems. Actual energy use: Energy use that was observed when the building was utilized in its natural condition for a certain period of time. Normalized energy use: Actual energy use that is adjusted to a set of reference conditions. Standard conditions: A set of variables that have prescribed values. Appliances: Devices used for converting one form of energy or fuel into useful energy (heat or work).