Stakeholder Perspectives on the Governance of Antarctic Cruise Tourism
Over the last two decades, Antarctic cruise tourism has grown exponentially, from a few thousand tourists in the 1990s to over 44,000 in the 2007/2008 season (IAATO, 2008a). Approximately 95 per cent of Antarctic tourists explore the Antarctic by cruise ship (Dingwall and Cessford, 1996, p65; Hemmings and Roura, 2003, p18). In this way, ship-based tourism continues to hold an incontestable ¤rst place when ranking the numbers of Antarctic tourists by mode of transport. Until recently, Antarctic cruise tourism has prided itself on an exceptional safety record. However, as Table 11.1 exempli¤es, various accidents and incidents within the last two Antarctic seasons (2007/2008 and 2008/2009) mar this record.