To conclude this book, let us revisit where it began. Discussions on the topic began at the Tourism and Global Change in Polar Regions conference in November 2007 in Oulu, Finland. Here, buoyed by discussion with colleagues, we thought about how a cruise tourism-speci¤c text was desperately needed, and especially one that examined the sustainability of the industry and one that asked ‘tough questions’. £e urgency of the book was fuelled by substantial growth in the cruise sector to both the polar regions, and only days before the Oulu conference we learned of the sad fate of the Explorer. If this icon of polar cruising (which was a purpose-built and ice-strengthened vessel) could sink in relatively benign conditions, then questions needed to be addressed about the sustainability of the sector.