Navigable Storm Surge Barriers for Coastal Cities: An Overview and Comparison
Storm surge barriers are flood protection works in rivers or estuaries that can greatly enhance coastal protection for ports and urbanized areas at risk, in particular (e.g. Vrijling, 2001). Since they are often expensive measures (see Table 10.1), such structures are often implemented only after a flood disaster has occurred. For example, the Thames Barrier in the UK and the Delta Works in The Netherlands were developed after the major flood in 1953. Barriers are currently being installed in New Orleans (US) after Hurricane Katrina in 2005. A big advantage of some barriers for port areas such as Rotterdam or New York is that they do not obstruct shipping activities, allowing free navigation under normal conditions (Dircke et al, 2009; Jansen and Dircke, 2009). Table 10.1 provides a global overview of some important or typical storm surge barriers, their year of operation and their costs.