chapter  11
22 Pages

Dealing with Uncertainty through (Participatory) Backcasting

BySusan van ’t Klooster, Pieter Pauw and Jeroen Aerts

Complex phenomena such as climate change are associated with large uncertainties  and the risks can be substantial. As climate change and other systems are not fully  understood, uncertainties are considerable and risks cannot be fully limited. Due to  this level of ignorance, experts, decision-makers, stakeholders and the public who are  increasingly confronted with climate-related risks must contend with uncertainty.