ABSTRACT

Liquid crystal science underlies the technology of about half the current display technology by value, an industry now worth some $10 billion per annum worldwide. The fundamental science straddles the disciplines of chemistry, physics, engineering, mathematics and computer science. Among liquid crystal scientists today there is much interest in the historical process that has brought the subject to its present level. The historical roots lie in the years following 1888, again in the interwar years, and finally in the late 60s and 70s.

This book has collected important papers in the development of liquid crystal science into one reference volume. The collection is divided into sections, each of which is prefaced by a brief commentary, referring to the historic-scientific context of the time. Some of these papers are available for the first time in English. More modern papers carry a short commentary from the original author, offering recollections of the context in which the work was carried out and what its impact has been.

Crystals that Flow is aimed at liquid crystal scientists- from whatever background- physics, mathematics, chemistry, engineering or computer science. Historians of science will also find this a useful reference.

part |2 pages

Section A THE EARLY PERIOD: LIQUID CRYSTALS OR ANISOTROPIC LIQUIDS?

part |2 pages

Section B THE INTER-WAR PERIOD: ANISOTROPIC LIQUIDS OR MESOMORPHIC PHASES?

part |2 pages

Section C THE MODERN PHYSICAL PICTURE

chapter |30 pages

THE MODERN PHYSICAL PICTURE

chapter |16 pages

ON THE APPLICATION OF THE THEORY OF MAGNETISM TO ANISOTROPIC FLUIDS

Note from presented by Mr L. De Launey
ByF. Grandjean

chapter |20 pages

A SIMPLE MOLECULAR THEORY OF THE NEMATIC LIQUID-CRYSTALLINE STATE

Physical Chemistry and Physics Institute of the University of Freiburg i. Br.
ByW. Maier, A. Saupe

chapter |1 pages

ISOMORPHIC RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CRYSTALLINE-LIQUID PHASES

Part 4: Miscibility in binary systems with several smectic phases

chapter |6 pages

Substances

The preparation of 4,4-dialkoxyazobenzenes is given in Part II; that of -diethylazoxybenzoate in Part III. Vorländer mentioned only one cr.-l. phase in the case of dialkylazoxycinnamates (Table 1). However, our own microscopic investigations indicated a readily reproducible transition within the cr.-l. range for higher homologues (column 3) having a sharp transition onset with decreasing

chapter 4|3 pages

The system methoxy- and ethoxybenzal-aminoethylcinnamate

Both compounds were investigated, amongst other trimorphic cr.-l. substances, by X-ray scattering by Herrmann (see Part I). Their high temperature smectic modifications as well as the low temperature ones exhibited comparable X-ray patterns. This is also the case for their miscibility as shown by Fig. 6. The smectic modifications, named smectic A and B phases (a justification for these terms is given

chapter 6|50 pages

Summary and discussion

Generally speaking, the smectic modifications of the compounds investigated proved to be typical concerning their mutual miscibility. Consequently, they should be related to each other in the way shown by Table 4. The full lines indicate, as in Table 3, the existence of complete miscibility between the phases concerned. (As to the dashed line for diethylazoxycinnamate see Section 5.) The