Interviewer Effects from a Total Survey Error Perspective presents a comprehensive collection of state-of-the-art research on interviewer-administered survey data collection. Interviewers play an essential role in the collection of the high-quality survey data used to learn about our society and improve the human condition. Although many surveys are conducted using self-administered modes, interviewer-administered modes continue to be optimal for surveys that require high levels of participation, include difficult-to-survey populations, and collect biophysical data. Survey interviewing is complex, multifaceted, and challenging. Interviewers are responsible for locating sampled units, contacting sampled individuals and convincing them to cooperate, asking questions on a variety of topics, collecting other kinds of data, and providing data about respondents and the interview environment. Careful attention to the methodology that underlies survey interviewing is essential for interviewer-administered data collections to succeed.

In 2019, survey methodologists, survey practitioners, and survey operations specialists participated in an international workshop at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln to identify best practices for surveys employing interviewers and outline an agenda for future methodological research. This book features 23 chapters on survey interviewing by these worldwide leaders in the theory and practice of survey interviewing. Chapters include:

  • The legacy of Dr. Charles F. Cannell’s groundbreaking research on training survey interviewers and the theory of survey interviewing
  • Best practices for training survey interviewers
  • Interviewer management and monitoring during data collection
  • The complex effects of interviewers on survey nonresponse
  • Collecting survey measures and survey paradata in different modes
  • Designing studies to estimate and evaluate interviewer effects
  • Best practices for analyzing interviewer effects
  • Key gaps in the research literature, including an agenda for future methodological research
  • Chapter appendices available to download from https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/sociw/

Written for managers of survey interviewers, survey methodologists, and students interested in the survey data collection process, this unique reference uses the Total Survey Error framework to examine optimal approaches to survey interviewing, presenting state-of-the-art methodological research on all stages of the survey process involving interviewers. Acknowledging the important history of survey interviewing while looking to the future, this one-of-a-kind reference provides researchers and practitioners with a roadmap for maximizing data quality in interviewer-administered surveys.

section Section I|30 pages

History and Overview

chapter 1|14 pages

The Past, Present, and Future of Research on Interviewer Effects

ByKristen Olson, Jolene D. Smyth, Jennifer Dykema, Allyson L. Holbrook, Frauke Kreuter, Brady T. West

chapter 2|14 pages

The Legacy of Charles Cannell

ByPeter V. Miller, Nancy A. Mathiowetz

section Section II|30 pages

Training Interviewers

chapter 3|14 pages

General Interviewing Techniques: Developing Evidence-based Practices for Standardized Interviewing

ByNora Cate Schaeffer, Jennifer Dykema, Steve M. Coombs, Rob K. Schultz, Lisa Holland, Margaret L. Hudson

chapter 4|14 pages

How to Conduct Effective Interviewer Training: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

ByJessica Daikeler, Michael Bosnjak

section Section III|60 pages

Managing and Monitoring Interviewers and the Survey Process

chapter 6|14 pages

Behavior Change Techniques for Reducing Interviewer Contributions to Total Survey Error

ByBrad Edwards, Hanyu Sun, Ryan Hubbard

chapter 7|16 pages

Statistical Identification of Fraudulent Interviews in Surveys: Improving Interviewer Controls

BySilvia Schwanhäuser, Joseph W. Sakshaug, Yuliya Kosyakova, Frauke Kreuter

chapter 8|14 pages

Examining the Utility of Interviewer Observations on the Survey Response Process

ByBrady T. West, Ting Yan, Frauke Kreuter, Michael Josten, Heather Schroeder

section Section IV|70 pages

Interviewer Effects and Interview Context and Mode

chapter 9|14 pages

Why Do Interviewers Vary in Achieving Interview Privacy and Does Privacy Matter?

ByZeina N. Mneimneh, Julie A. de Jong, Yasmin A. Altwaijri

chapter 11|16 pages

Virtual Interviewers, Social Identities, and Survey Measurement Error

ByFrederick G. Conrad, Michael F. Schober, Daniel Nielsen, Heidi Reichert

chapter 13|12 pages

Interacting with Interviewers in Text and Voice Interviews on Smartphones

ByMichael F. Schober, Frederick G. Conrad, Christopher Antoun, Alison W. Bowers, Andrew L. Hupp, H. Yanna Yan

section Section V|44 pages

Interviewers and Nonresponse

chapter 14|14 pages

Explaining Interviewer Effects on Survey Unit Nonresponse: A Cross-Survey Analysis

ByDaniela Ackermann-Piek, Julie M. Korbmacher, Ulrich Krieger

chapter 15|14 pages

Comparing Two Methods for Managing Telephone Interview Cases

ByJamie Wescott

chapter 16|14 pages

Investigating the Use of Nurse Paradata in Understanding Nonresponse to Biological Data Collection

ByFiona Pashazadeh, Alexandru Cernat, Joseph W. Sakshaug

section Section VI|58 pages

Interview Pace and Behaviors

chapter 17|16 pages

Exploring the Antecedents and Consequences of Interviewer Reading Speed (IRS) at the Question Level

ByAllyson L. Holbrook, Timothy P. Johnson, Evgenia Kapousouz, Young Ik Cho

chapter 18|14 pages

Response Times as an Indicator of Data Quality: Associations with Question, Interviewer, and Respondent Characteristics in a Health Survey of Diverse Respondents

ByDana Garbarski, Jennifer Dykema, Nora Cate Schaeffer, Dorothy Farrar Edwards

section Section VII|42 pages

Estimating Interviewer Effects

chapter 21|16 pages

Modeling Interviewer Effects in the National Health Interview Survey

ByJames Dahlhamer, Benjamin Zablotsky, Carla Zelaya, Aaron Maitland