ABSTRACT

This book provides the reader with an understanding of the impact that different morphologies, construction materials and green coverage solutions have on the urban microclimate, thus affecting the comfort conditions of urban inhabitants and the energy needs of buildings in urban areas. The book covers the latest approaches to energy and outdoor comfort measurement and modelling on an urban scale, and describes possible measures and strategies to mitigate the effects of the mutual interaction between urban settlements and local microclimate.

Despite its relevance, only limited literature is currently devoted to appraising—from an engineering perspective—the intertwining relationships between urban geometry and fabrics, energy fluxes between buildings and their surroundings, outdoor microclimate conditions and building energy demands in urban areas. This book fills this gap by first discussing the physical processes that govern heat and mass transfer at an urban scale, while emphasizing the role played by different spatial arrangements, manmade materials and green infrastructures on the outdoor microclimate. The first chapters also address the implications of these factors on the outdoor comfort conditions experienced by pedestrians, and on the buildings’ energy demand for space heating and cooling.

Then, based upon cutting-edge experimental activities and simulation work, this book demonstrates current and forthcoming adaptation and mitigation strategies to improve the urban microclimate and its impact on the built environment, such as cool materials, thermochromic and retroreflective finishing materials, and green infrastructures applied either at a building scale or at the urban scale. The effect of these solutions is demonstrated for different cities worldwide under a range of climate conditions. Finally, the book opens a wider perspective by introducing the basic elements that allow fuel poverty, raw materials consumption, and the principles of circular economy in the definition of a resilient urban settlement.

part Part I|94 pages

Physical processes and outdoor comfort in urban areas

chapter 1|18 pages

Understanding heat and mass transfer at the urban scale

ByVincenzo Costanzo, Gianpiero Evola, Luigi Marletta

chapter 2|19 pages

An overview of microclimate simulation tools and models for predicting outdoor thermal comfort

ByMaurizio Detommaso, Antonio Gagliano, Francesco Nocera

chapter 3|22 pages

Measuring and assessing thermal exposure

ByNegin Nazarian, Leslie Norford

chapter 4|16 pages

Thermal comfort in the outdoor built environment: the role of clothing

ByFerdinando Salata, Federica Rosso

chapter 5|17 pages

Potential effects of anthropometric variables on outdoor thermal comfort

ByEduardo Krüger, Luísa Alcantara Rosa, Eduardo Grala da Cunha

part Part II|136 pages

Urban energy modelling

chapter 6|21 pages

Urban form and climate performance

ByAgnese Salvati

chapter 7|21 pages

Including weather data morphing and other urban effects in energy simulations

ByMassimo Palme, Agnese Salvati

chapter 8|23 pages

The climate-related potential of natural ventilation

ByGiacomo Chiesa

chapter 9|26 pages

Different approaches to urban energy modelling

ByMiroslava Kavgic

part Part III|91 pages

Adaptation and mitigation measures

chapter 12|20 pages

Cool materials in buildings. Roofs as a measure for urban energy rehabilitation

ByNoelia Liliana Alchapar, María Florencia Colli, Erica Norma Correa

chapter 13|21 pages

Building greenery systems

ByJulià Coma, Gabriel Perez

chapter 14|27 pages

Thermochromic and retro-reflective materials

ByFederico Rossi, Mattheos Santamouris, Samira Garshasbi, Marta Cardinali, Alessia Di Giuseppe

chapter 15|21 pages

Urban green infrastructures for climate change adaptation: a multiscale approach

ByStephan Pauleit, Teresa Zölch, Sabrina Erlwein, Astrid Reischl, Mohammad Rahman, Hans Pretzsch, Thomas Rötzer

part Part IV|82 pages

Towards a resilient urbanscape

chapter 16|25 pages

Environmental valuation and the city perspectives towards the circular economy

ByMaria Rosa Trovato, Salvatore Giuffrida

chapter 17|18 pages

Urban energy poverty

ByKristian Fabbri

chapter 18|17 pages

Planning criteria for nature-based solutions in cities

ByRiccardo Privitera, Daniele La Rosa

chapter 19|20 pages

The colour of heat: visualising urban heat islands for policy-making

ByCarmelo Ignaccolo