Offering a basis for further research into the interactions of hosts and pathogens, this work gathers up-to-date findings, and details basic structures, functions and immunology. It provides descriptions of a variety of experimental endotoxin neutralizing agents, as well as a guide to clinical research initiatives and the latest treatments.

chapter 1|30 pages

Endotoxin: Historical Perspectives

ByErnst T. Rietschel, Otto Westphal

chapter 3|16 pages

Lipopolysaccharide Phase Variation in Haemophilus and Neisseria

ByDerek W. Hood, E. Richard Moxon

chapter 4|11 pages

Antigenic Mimicry in Neisseria Species

ByPeter C. Giardina, Michael A. Apicella, Brad Gibson, Andrew Preston

chapter 5|9 pages

Antibiotic-Induced Endotoxin Release: Important Parameters Dictating Responses

ByJesse J. Jackson, Helmut Kropp

chapter 6|15 pages

Complement-Mediated Lipopolysaccharide Release

ByVernon L. Tesh

chapter 7|22 pages

Chemical Structure of Lipid A: Recent Advances in Structural Analysis of Biologically Active Molecules

ByUlrich Zähringer, Buko Lindner, Ernst T. Rietschel

chapter 8|40 pages

Chemical Structure of the Core Region of Lipopolysaccharides

ByOtto Holst

chapter 11|25 pages

A Biophysical View on the Function and Activity of Endotoxins

ByUlrich Seydel, Andre Wiese, Andra B. Schromm, Klaus Brandenburg

chapter 12|8 pages

Lipopolysaccharide Preparations in Aqueous Media: Implications for Solution Versus Suspension

ByPasupati Mukerjee, Manfred Kastowsky, Stefan Obst, Kuni Takayama

chapter 13|14 pages

Chlamydial Lipopolysaccharide

ByHelmut Brade

chapter 14|14 pages

The Chemical Synthesis of Lipid A

ByShoichi Kusumoto, Koichi Fukase, Masato Oikawa

chapter 15|25 pages

Chemical Synthesis of Core Structures

ByPaul Kosma

chapter 16|22 pages

Microbial Pathways of Lipid A Biosynthesis

ByPaul D. Rick, Christian R. H. Raetz

chapter 17|26 pages

Biosynthesis and Genetics of Lipopolysaccharide Core

ByDavid E. Heinrichs, Chris Whitfield, Miguel A. Valvano

chapter 18|28 pages

Genetics and Biosynthesis of Lipopolysaccharide O-Antigens

ByWendy J. Keenleyside, Chris Whitfield

chapter 19|9 pages

Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein

ByPeter S. Tobias

chapter 21|10 pages

Interactions of Lipopolysaccharides and Lipoproteins

BySander J. H. van Deventer, Dasja Pajkrt

chapter 22|13 pages

Effects of Human Hemoglobin on Bacterial Endotoxin In Vitro and In Vivo

ByRobert J. Roth, Jack Levin

chapter 23|9 pages

LPS/Lipid A–Binding Synthetic Peptides

ByMassimo Porro

chapter 26|12 pages

Scavenger Receptors and Lipopolysaccharide

ByAlexander Shnyra

chapter 27|14 pages

The Role of Platelet-Activating Factor in Endotoxin-Related Disease

ByTaco W. Kuijpers, Tom van der Poll

chapter 28|9 pages

CD14, An Innate Immune Receptor for Various Bacterial Cell Wall Components

ByArtur J. Ulmer, Volker T. El-Samalouti, Ernst T. Rietschel, Hans-Dieter Flad, Roman Dziarski

chapter 29|10 pages

The Role of MAP Kinases, Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase, and Ceramide in LPS-induced Signaling in Macrophages

ByAnthony L. DeFranco, Alexander J. Finn, Julie Hambleton, Mary T. Crowley, Mary Lee MacKichan, Steven L. Weinstein

chapter 31|11 pages

Endotoxic Shock and the Sphingomyelin Pathway

ByCecil K. Joseph, Richard N. Kolesnick

chapter 32|12 pages

Role of NF-κB in Macrophage Activation

ByTsuneo Suzuki

chapter 33|16 pages

Internalization of Lipopolysaccharide by Phagocytes

ByRichard L. Kitchens, Robert S. Munford

chapter 34|11 pages

Multifunctional G Proteins: Implication in Endotoxin Cellular Responses

ByLawrence P. Fernando, Michel A. Makhlouf, J. A. Cook

chapter 36|19 pages

Platelet-Activating Factor in Sepsis: An Update

ByReuven Rabinovici, Fizan Abdullah, Guenther Mathiak, Giora Feuerstein

chapter 37|10 pages

Interleukin-10 and Other Suppressive Cytokines

ByArnaud Marchant, Michel Goldman, Tom van der Poll

chapter 40|9 pages

Biological Functions of Lipopolysaccharide Antibodies

ByMatthew Pollack

chapter 41|10 pages

Specificity and Neutralizing Properties of Cross-Reactive Anti-Core LPS Monoclonal Antibodies

ByFranco E. Di Padova, Didier Heumann, Michel Pierre Glauser, Ernst T. Rietschel

chapter 42|8 pages

Effects of Lipopolysaccharide on T Cells

ByMasayasu Nakano, Teruo Kirikae, Toshimasa Nitta

chapter 43|15 pages

Immunological Properties of Microbial Outer Membrane Proteins and Their Effects as Modulators of LPS Immunobiology

ByKathryn Nixdorff, Dagmar Schilling, Waltraud Ruiner

chapter 45|7 pages

Apoptotic Cell Death in Response to Lipopolysaccharide

ByTakashi Yokochi

chapter 46|12 pages

Nontoxic RsDPLA As a Potent Antagonist of Toxic Lipopolysaccharide

ByNilofer Qureshi, Bruce W. Jarvis, Kuni Takayama

chapter 47|19 pages

Synthetic Endotoxin Antagonists

ByDaniel P. Rossignol, Lynn D. Hawkins, William j. Christ, Seiichi Kobayashi, Tsutomu Kawata, Melvyn Lynn, Isao Yamatsu, Yoshito Kishi

chapter 48|15 pages

Bacteria-Induced Hypersensitivity to Endotoxin

ByMarina A. Freudenberg, Thomas Merlin, Andreas Sing, Chris Galanos, Reinaldo Salamao

chapter 49|16 pages

Genetic Control of Endotoxin Responsiveness: The Lps Gene Revisited

ByStefanie N. Vogel, Nayantara Bhat, Danielle Malo, Salman T. Qureshi

chapter 50|17 pages

Endotoxin Tolerance

ByF. Ulrich Schade, Regina Flach, Sascha Flohé, Matthias Majetschak, Ernst Kreuzfelder, Emilio Domínguez-Fernández, Jochen Börgermann, Martin Reuter, Udo Obertacke

chapter 51|11 pages

Glucocorticoid Control of Endotoxin Responses

ByRichard Silverstein, Donald C. Johnson, Mari Norimatsu

chapter 53|14 pages

Endotoxemia in Primate Models

ByHeinz Redl, Günther Schlag, Soheyl Bahrami

chapter 54|8 pages

The Value of Animal Models in Endotoxin Research

BySteven M. Opal

chapter 55|14 pages

Pathophysiological Responses to Endotoxin in Humans

ByAnthony F. Suffredini, Naomi P. O’Grady

chapter 56|9 pages

Endotoxin Detection in Body Fluids: Chemical Versus Bioassay Methodology

ByThomas J. Novitsky

chapter 57|14 pages

The Relevance of Endotoxin Detection in Sepsis

ByJames Hurley, Jack Levin

chapter 58|10 pages

The Role of Gut-Derived Endotoxin in the Pathogenesis of Multiple Organ Dysfunction

ByMitchell P. Fink, Michael G. Mythen

chapter 59|12 pages

Therapeutic Approaches Targeting Endotoxin-Derived Mediators

ByJean-Daniel Baumgartner, Didier Heumann, Michel Pierre Glauser

chapter 60|9 pages

Human Responses to Endotoxin: Role of the Genetic Background

ByFrank Stüber

chapter 62|15 pages

Lipopolysaccharide from Oral Bacteria: Role in Innate Host Defense and Chronic Inflammatory Disease

ByBrian W. Bainbridge, Richard P. Darveau

chapter 63|12 pages

Endotoxin and Cancer

ByMinghuang Zhang, Kevin J. Tracey

chapter 64|2 pages

The Future of Endotoxin Research

ByHelmut Brade, Steven M. Opal, Stefanie N. Vogel, David C. Morrison