"Algae are mysterious and fascinating organisms that hold great potential for discovery and biotechnology."

—Dr. Thierry Tonon, Department of Biology, University of York

"Science is a beautiful gift to humanity; we should not distort it."

—A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

In this book, we emphasise the importance of algal biotechnology as a sustainable platform to replace the conventional fossil-based economy. With this focus, Volume 2 summarizes up-to-date literature knowledge and discusses the advances in algal cultivation, genetic improvement, wastewater treatment, resource recovery, commercial operation, and technoeconomic analysis of algal biotechnology.


  • Discusses in detail recent developments in algae cultivation and biomass harvesting
  • Provides an overview of genetic engineering and algal-bacteria consortia to improve productivity
  • Presents applications of algae in the area of wastewater treatment and resource recovery
  • Provides case studies and technoeconomic analysis to understand the algal biorefinery

Shashi Kant Bhatia, PhD, is an Associate Professor in the Department of Biological Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea.

Sanjeet Mehariya, PhD, is a Postdoctoral Researcher in the Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Obulisamy Parthiba Karthikeyan, PhD, is a Research Scientist and Lecturer (Adjunct) in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, South Dakota, USA.

chapter 1|60 pages

Genetic Engineering in Improving the Output of Algal Biorefinery

ByYogita Sharma, Ameesh Dev Singh, Sanjeet Mehariya, Obulisamy Parthiba Karthikeyan, Gajendra Pal Singh, Chandra Pal Singh, Antonio Molino

chapter 2|31 pages

Recent Development in Microalgal Cultivation and Biomass Harvesting Methods

ByGour Gopal Satpati, Ashutosh Kumar, Sreestha Dinesh Parambath, Trisha Bagchi, Meenakshi Singh, Murthy Chavali, K. Chandrasekhar

chapter 3|22 pages

Application of Microalgae for CO2 Mitigation and Sequestration of Flue Gas

ByAsha A. Nesamma, Iqra Mariam, Mukul S. Kareya, Pannaga P. Jutur

chapter 4|31 pages

Microalgae-Based Nutrient Recovery from Urban Wastewater

ByMaria Rosa di Cicco, Maria Palmieri, C. Lubritto, C. Ciniglia

chapter 5|35 pages

Microalgal Metal Remediation from Industrial Wastewater

ByAnna Aksmann, Wojciech Pokora, Agnieszka Baścik-Remisiewicz, Martyna Zalewska

chapter 6|68 pages

Application of Microalgae for Removal of Pharmaceuticals from Aqueous Matrices

ByAndreia Silva, Olga M. Freitas, Sónia A. Figueiredo, Cristina Delerue-Matos

chapter 7|26 pages

C1-Proteins Prospect for Production of Industrial Proteins and Protein-Based Materials from Methane

ByHamilton Richard, Nizovtseva Irina, Chernuskin Dmitri, Marina G. Kalyuzhnaya

chapter 8|25 pages

Microalgal Consortia and Their Biotechnological Applications

ByNeerja Thakur, Ranjit Gurav, Yung-Hun Yang, Shashi Kant Bhatia

chapter 9|37 pages

Algae from Extremophilic Conditions and Their Potential Applications

ByAshiwin Vadiveloo, Tasneema Ishika, David Chuka-Ogwude, Mohammadjavad Raeisossadati, Ângelo P. Matos

chapter 10|47 pages

LCA: A Tool to Develop Sustainable Microalgal Biorefineries

ByN.S. Caetano, P.S. Corrêa, W.G. de Morais Júnior, T.M. Mata, A.A.A. Martins, M. Branco-Vieira

chapter 11|26 pages

Commercial Operation of Algal Technology: A Case Study and Techno-economic Analysis

ByPatrizia Casella, Angela Iovine, Gian Paolo Leone, Sanjeet Mehariya, Tiziana Marino, Antonio Molino