ABSTRACT

During the past 20 years, transgenesis has become a popular technique and a crucial tool for molecular geneticists and biologists. Transgene expression is now better-controlled and even specifically inducible by exogenous factors. While these techniques have quite significantly transformed the experimental approaches taken by biologists, the applications are more limited than expected and concerns have arisen regarding biosafety as well as physiological, social, and philosophical issues.

Transgenic Animals: Generation and Use contains articles on the techniques used to generate transgenic animals and a section on the preparation of vectors for the optimally controlled expression of transgenes. It also examines the use of transgenic animals in the study of gene function and human diseases, the preparation of recombinant proteins and organs for pharmaceutical and medical use, and the improvement of genetic characteristics of farm animals. Finally, it discusses more recent problems generated by transgenic animals including conservation of transgenic lines, specific database patenting, biosafety, and bioethics.

Drawn from both academia and industry, the contributors to this monograph present in one concise volume all the relevant information on the different aspects of transgenesis. This book can be used as both a reference book and a textbook for specialized university courses and will be of interest to everyone involved in basic research in animal biology, molecular genetics, animal biotechnology, pharmaceutical science, and medicine.

part Part I|6 pages

Overview

chapter 1|6 pages

Overview

ByLouis Marie Houdebine

part Part II|207 pages

The Techniques for Gene Transfer

section Section A|38 pages

Gene Transfer into Mammal Embryos

chapter 2|3 pages

Transgenic Rats

ByJohn J. Mullins, Gillian Brooker, Linda J. Mullins

chapter 3|3 pages

The Generation of Transgenic Rabbits

ByCéline Viglietta, Micheline Massoud, Louis Marie Houdebine

chapter 4|3 pages

Techniques and Problems in Producing Transgenic Pigs

ByVernon G. Pursel

chapter 5|3 pages

Gene Transfer into Goat Embryos

ByWilliam G. Gavin

chapter 6|3 pages

The Generation of Transgenic Sheep by Pronuclear Microinjection

ByYvonne Gibson, Alan Colman

chapter 7|10 pages

Gene Microinjection into Bovine Pronuclei

ByMarc Gagné, François Pothier, Marc-André Sirard

chapter 8|4 pages

DNA Delivery by Cytoplasmic Injection

ByWilliam H. Velander

chapter 9|4 pages

The Direct Gene Transfer Through Mammal Spermatozoa

ByK. Schellander, G. Berm

section Section B|15 pages

In Vitro Mammal Embryo Manipulation

chapter 10|5 pages

In Vitro Generation of One Cell Embryos in Sheep and Goat

ByNicole Crozet

chapter 11|4 pages

In Vitro Generation of Bovine Embryos

ByF.A.M. de Loos, F.R. Pieper

section Section C|43 pages

Gene Transfer into Bird Embryos

chapter 13|7 pages

The Complete In Vitro Development of Quail Embryo

ByTamao Ono

chapter 14|5 pages

The Microinjection of DNA into Early Chicken Embryo

ByM. Naito

chapter 15|8 pages

Production of Chimeric Chickens as Intermediatesfor Gene Transfer

ByR.J. Etches, M.E. Clark, A.M. Verrinder Gibbins, M.B. Cochran

chapter 16|12 pages

The Use of Retroviral Vectors for Gene Transfer into Bird Embryo

ByCorinne Ronfort, Catherine Legras, Gérard Verdier

chapter 17|5 pages

Transgenic Chickens by Liposome-Sperm-Mediated Gene Transfer

ByE.J. Squires, D. Drake

chapter 18|3 pages

Ballistic Transfection of Avian Primordial Germ Cells In Ovo

ByK. Simkiss, G. Luke

section Section D|28 pages

Gene Transfer into Fish and Lower Vertebrates

chapter 19|13 pages

Transgenic Salmonids

ByRobert H. Devlin

chapter 20|4 pages

Transferring Foreign Genes into Zebrafish Eggs by Microinjection

ByPhilippe Collas, Harald Husebye, Peter Alestrøm

chapter 21|5 pages

Gene Injection into Xenopus Embryos

BySiew-Ging Gong, Laurence D. Etkin

chapter 22|4 pages

The Techniques using Electroporation to Generate Transgenic Fish

ByKoji Inoue, Shinya Yamashita

section Section E|23 pages

Gene Transfer into Invertebrates

chapter 23|4 pages

Gene Transfer in Drosophila Melanogaster

ByKim Kaiser

chapter 24|14 pages

Genetic Transformation in Caenorhabditis Elegans

ByDanielle Thierry-Mieg, Karine Naert, Claire Bonnerot

chapter 25|5 pages

Gene Transfer Technology in Marine Invertebrates

ByE. Mialhe, Viviane Boulo, J.-P. Cadoret, V. Cedeño, C. Rousseau, E. Motte, S. Gendreau, E. Bachère

section Section F|31 pages

The use of ES Cells for Gene Transfer and Gene Targeting

chapter 26|10 pages

What are ES cells?

ByJ.-E. Fléchon

chapter 27|6 pages

Formation of Mouse Chimeric Embryos from ES Cells

ByAndras Nagy

chapter 28|6 pages

Bovine Pluripotent Stem Cells for Transgenic Vectors

ByN. Strelchenko

chapter 29|9 pages

Towards the Use of Primordial Germ Cells for Germline Modification

ByPeter J. Donovan, James L. Resnick, Linzhao Cheng, Leslie F. Lock

section Section G|25 pages

The Direct Gene Transfer into Somatic Cells of Animals

chapter 30|8 pages

The Adenovirus Vectors for Gene Delivery

ByJ.F. Dedieu, E. Vigne, C. Orsini, M. Perricaudet, P. Yeh

chapter 32|4 pages

Advances Toward Synthetic Retro-Vectoring

ByClague P. Hodgson, Mary Ann Zink, Fauzia Solaiman, Guoping Xu

chapter 33|5 pages

The Biolistic

ByPierre Couble

part Part III|129 pages

The Fate of Microinjected DNA into Mammal Embryos

section Section A|36 pages

The Integration and Modification of Foreign DNA

chapter 34|3 pages

The Fate of Microinjected Genes in Preimplantation Embryos

ByRobert J. Wall, Thomas G. Burdon

chapter 35|5 pages

Chromosomal Insertion of Foreign DNA

ByJohn O. Bishop

chapter 36|7 pages

Detection of Transgenes in the Preimplantation Stage Embryo

ByG.T. O’Neill

chapter 37|3 pages

Genetic Mosaicism in the Generation of Transgenic Mice

ByYann Echelard

chapter 38|7 pages

Transgene Methylation in Transgenic Animals

ByKenneth J. Snibson, Timothy E. Adams

chapter 39|6 pages

Influence of Genomic Imprinting on Transgene Expression

ByJ. Richard Chaillet

section Section B|93 pages

The Vectors for Transgenesis

chapter 40|5 pages

The Use of Episomal Vectors for Transgenesis

ByJoé Attal, Marie Georges Stinnakre, Marie Claire Théron, Michel Terqui, Louis Marie Houdebine

chapter 41|9 pages

Insulation of Transgenes from Chromosomal Position Effects

ByAlbrecht E. Sippel, Harald Saueressig, Matthias C. Huber, Nicole Faust, Constanze Bonifer

chapter 42|6 pages

Transgene Rescue

ByA.J. Clark

chapter 43|9 pages

The Use of P1 Bacteriophage Clones to Generate Transgenic Animals

BySally P.A. McCormick, Charles M. Allan, John M. Taylor, Stephen G. Young

chapter 44|5 pages

Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes and Animal Transgenesis

ByKen Dewar, Bruce W. Birren, Hadi Abderrahim

chapter 45|10 pages

The Use of Yeast Artificial Chromosomes for Transgenesis

ByThorsten Umland, Lluis Montoliu, Günther Schütz

chapter 46|4 pages

Gene Transfer Using Microdissected Chromosome Fragments

ByJean Richa, Cecilia Lo

chapter 47|4 pages

Prospects for Directing Temporal and Spatial Gene Expression in Transgenic Animals

ByLothar Hennighausen, Priscilla A. Furth

chapter 48|15 pages

Mouse Genetic Manipulation via Homologous Recombination

ByStéphane Viville

chapter 49|3 pages

Improvements in Transgene Expression by Gene Targeting

ByAlexander J. Kind, Alan Colman

chapter 50|4 pages

Nuclear Antisense RNA as a Tool to Inhibit Gene Expression

ByGordon G. Carmichael

chapter 51|6 pages

Controlled Genetic Ablation by Immunotoxin-Mediated Cell Targeting

ByKazuto Kobayashi, Ira Pastan, Toshiharu Nagatsu

chapter 52|7 pages

Reporter Genes and Detection of Mutational Activity in Mice

ByPeter J. Stambrook, Jay A. Tischfield

part Part IV|180 pages

The Use of Transgenic Animals

section Section A|58 pages

The Study of Gene Functions

chapter 53|15 pages

Gene Activity in the Preimplantation Mouse Embryo

BySylvie Forlani, Jean-François Nicolas

chapter 54|3 pages

Insertional Mutagenesis in Transgenic Mice

ByUlrich Rüther

chapter 55|6 pages

Enhancer-Trap Studies of the Drosophila Brain

ByJ. Douglas Armstrong, Kim Kaiser

chapter 56|16 pages

Transgenic Strategies for the Study of Mouse Development: An Overview

ByCharles Babinet

chapter 57|9 pages

Gene Transfer in Laboratory Fish: Model Organisms for the Analysis of Gene Function

ByChristoph Winkler, Manfred Schartl

section Section B|58 pages

The Generation of Animal Models for Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Studies

chapter 59|7 pages

Standardization of Transgenic Lines: from Founder to an Established Animal Model

ByDorothée Carvallo, Georges Canard, David Tucker

chapter 60|9 pages

The Use of Mouse Knockouts to Study Tumor Suppressor Genes

ByChristopher J. Kemp

chapter 61|5 pages

The Generation of New Immortalized Cell Lines through Transgenesis

ByManfred Theisen, Andrea Pavirani

chapter 62|7 pages

The Use of Transgenic Mammals for AIDS Studies

ByTania Sorg, Majid Mehtali

chapter 63|10 pages

The Role of Mouse Models in the Development of New Therapies for Cystic Fibrosis

ByGerry McLachlan, David J. Porteous

chapter 64|4 pages

Transgenic Animals in Atherosclerosis Research

ByMiles W. Miller, Edward M. Rubin

chapter 65|6 pages

Genetically Engineered Mice in Obesity Research

ByBradford B. Lowell

chapter 66|6 pages

The Generation and Use of Transgenic Animals for Xenotransplantation

ByJeffrey L. Platt, John S. Logan

section Section C|11 pages

The Preparation of Recombinant Proteins from Transgenic Animals

chapter 67|3 pages

The Preparation of Recombinant Proteins from Mouse and Rabbit Milk for Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Studies

ByMarie Georges Stinnakre, Micheline Massoud, Céline Viglietta, L.M. Houdebine

chapter 68|3 pages

Production of Complex Human Pharmaceuticals in the Milk of Transgenic Goats Using the Goats Beta Casein Promoter

ByP. DiTullio, K.M. Ebert, J. Pollock, T. Edmunds, H.M. Meade

chapter 69|3 pages

Purification of Recombinant Proteins from Sheep's Milk

ByGordon Wright, Alan Colman

section Section D|10 pages

The Modification of Milk Composition

chapter 70|10 pages

The Modification of Milk Protein Composition through Transgenesis: Progress and Problems

ByJean-Claude Mercier, Jean-Luc Vilotte

section Section E|24 pages

The Protection of Animals Against Diseases

chapter 71|6 pages

The Use of Host-Derived Antiviral Genes

ByEllen Meier, Heinz Arnheiter

chapter 73|5 pages

Antibody Encoding Transgenes-Their Potential Use in Congenital and Intracellular Immunisation of Farm Animals

ByMathias Müller, Ulrich H. Weidle, Gottfried Brem

section Section F|18 pages

Towards the Introduction of New Genetic Traits in Domestic Animals by Transgenesis

part Part V|50 pages

The New Problems Generated by Transgenic Animals

chapter 79|20 pages

TBASE : The Relationalized Database of Transgenic Animals and Targeted Mutations

ByAnna V. Anagnostopoulos

chapter 80|5 pages

The Patenting of Transgenic Animals

ByJacques Warcoin

chapter 81|4 pages

The Biosafety Problems of Transgenic Animals

ByLouis Marie Houdebine

chapter 82|6 pages

Food Safety Evaluation of Transgenic Animals

ByMargaret Ann Miller, John C. Matheson

chapter 83|6 pages

From a Moral Point of View: Ethical Problems of Animal Transgenesis

ByEgbert Schroten