ABSTRACT

In a unique collaboration, Nature Publishing Group and Institute of Physics Publishing have published the most extensive and comprehensive reference work in astronomy and astrophysics. This unique resource covers the entire field of astronomy and astrophysics and this online version includes the full text of over 2,750 articles, plus sophisticated search and retrieval functionality and links to the primary literature.

The Encyclopaedia's authority is assured by editorial and advisory boards drawn from the world's foremost astronomers and astrophysicists. This first class resource is an essential source of information for undergraduates, graduate students, researchers and seasoned professionals, as well as for committed amateurs, librarians and lay people wishing to consult the definitive astronomy and astrophysics reference work.

chapter |1 pages

61 Cygni

chapter |1 pages

Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory

chapter |1 pages

Abbe, Ernst (1840–1905)

chapter |1 pages

Abbott, Francis (1799–1883)

chapter |3 pages

Abell Clusters

ByPeter Katgert

chapter |1 pages

Aberration

chapter |1 pages

Absolute Zero

chapter |1 pages

Absorption Spectrum

chapter |1 pages

Acceleration

chapter |1 pages

Accretion

chapter |8 pages

Accretion Disks

ByH Spruit

chapter |1 pages

Ace (Advanced Composition Explorer)

chapter |1 pages

Achernar

chapter |1 pages

Achilles

chapter |1 pages

Achondrite

chapter |2 pages

Acousto-Optic Spectrographs

ByTrevor Cole

chapter |4 pages

Active Galactic Nuclei: Variability

ByMarie-Helene Ulrich

chapter |1 pages

Active Galactic Nucleus

chapter |7 pages

Active Galaxies: Observations

ByBelinda J Wilkes, Bradley M Peterson

chapter |2 pages

Active Galaxies: Observing their Variability by Amateurs

ByNick Hewitt

chapter |5 pages

Active Galaxies: Overview

ByMatthew Malkan

chapter |5 pages

Active Galaxies: Unified Model

ByBradley M Peterson, Belinda J Wilkes

chapter |1 pages

Active Galaxy

chapter |1 pages

Active Optics

chapter |1 pages

Active Region

chapter |1 pages

Adams, John Couch (1819–92)

chapter |1 pages

Adams, Walter Sydney (1876–1956)

chapter |1 pages

Adaptive Optics

chapter |1 pages

Adelard of Bath (1075–1160)

chapter |1 pages

Aerolite

chapter |1 pages

Aglaonike (c. 200 BC)

chapter |1 pages

Air Force Maui Optical Station

chapter |5 pages

Airglow

ByEric Chassefiére

chapter |1 pages

Airy Disk

chapter |1 pages

Airy, Sir George Biddell (1801–92)

chapter |1 pages

Aitken, Robert Grant (1864–1951)

chapter |1 pages

Akebono (EXOS-D)

chapter |1 pages

al-Biruni, Abu Raihan (973–1048)

chapter |1 pages

al-Sufi, Abu al-Rahman (903–86)

chapter |1 pages

Albedo

chapter |1 pages

Albireo

chapter |1 pages

Aldebaran

chapter |1 pages

Alfvén, Hannes Olof Gösta (1908–95)

chapter |1 pages

Algol

ByDirk Terrell

chapter |1 pages

Algonquin Radio Observatory

chapter |1 pages

Allegheny Observatory

chapter |1 pages

Allen, David (1946–94)

chapter |1 pages

Allende Meteorite

chapter |1 pages

Almanac

chapter |1 pages

Alpha Centauri

chapter |1 pages

Alpha Centauri A+B

ByRobert Mohr

chapter |1 pages

Alpha Particle

chapter |1 pages

Alpher, Ralph Asher (1921–)

chapter |1 pages

Altair

chapter |1 pages

Altazimuth Mounting

chapter |1 pages

Altitude

chapter |1 pages

Alvarez, Luis Walter (1911–88)

chapter |3 pages

AM Herculis

ByGary Schmidt

chapter |2 pages

Amateur Astronomical Societies

ByPatrick Moore

chapter |2 pages

Amateur Spectroscopy

ByMaurice Gavin

chapter |3 pages

Amateur–Professional Collaboration in Astronomy

ByPatrick Moore

chapter |1 pages

American Astronomical Society (AAS)

chapter |1 pages

Anderson, Carl David (1905–91)

chapter |1 pages

Andromeda

chapter |3 pages

Andromeda Galaxy

ByRené Walterbos

chapter |1 pages

Anglo-Australian Observatory

chapter |1 pages

Angstrom

chapter |1 pages

Ångström, Anders Jonas (1814–74)

chapter |1 pages

Angular Momentum

chapter |4 pages

Anomalous Cosmic Rays

ByJ R Jokipii

chapter |1 pages

Anomaly

chapter |1 pages

Antapex

chapter |1 pages

Antares

chapter |1 pages

Anthelme, Voituret (c. 1618–83)

chapter |7 pages

Anthropic Principle

ByBernard Carr

chapter |1 pages

Antimatter

chapter |1 pages

Antlia

chapter |1 pages

Antoniadi, Eugenios (1870–1944)

chapter |1 pages

Apache Point Observatory

chapter |1 pages

Apastron

chapter |1 pages

Aperture

chapter |1 pages

Aperture Synthesis

chapter |1 pages

Apex

chapter |1 pages

Aphelion

chapter |1 pages

Aphrodite Terra

chapter |1 pages

Apoapsis

chapter |1 pages

Apogee

chapter |1 pages

Apollo

chapter |1 pages

Apparent Solar Time

chapter |1 pages

Apparition

chapter |1 pages

Appleton, Edward Victor (1892–1965)

chapter |1 pages

Appulse

chapter |1 pages

Apus

chapter |1 pages

Aquarius

chapter |1 pages

Aquila

chapter |1 pages

Ara

chapter |1 pages

Aratus [Aratos] (c. 315–c. 245 BC)

chapter |1 pages

Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory

chapter |1 pages

Archelaus (fifth century BC)

chapter |1 pages

Archimedes of Syracuse (287–212 BC)

chapter |1 pages

Arcturus

chapter |1 pages

Arecibo Observatory

chapter |1 pages

Argo Navis

chapter |1 pages

Ariel

chapter |1 pages

Ariel

chapter |1 pages

Aries

chapter |1 pages

Aristarchus of Samos (310–230 BC)

chapter |1 pages

Aristillus (c. 200 BC)

chapter |1 pages

Aristotle of Stagira (384–322 BC)

chapter |1 pages

Armagh Observatory

chapter |1 pages

Armillary Sphere

chapter |1 pages

Armstrong, Neil Alden (1930–)

chapter |1 pages

Arrhenius, Svante August (1859–1927)

chapter |4 pages

Art and Literature

ByPaul Murdin, Patrick Moore

chapter |1 pages

Artificial Satellite

chapter |1 pages

Ashen Light

chapter |1 pages

Asterism

chapter |1 pages

Asteroid Belt

chapter |4 pages

Asteroid Discovery in History

ByGareth V Williams

chapter |7 pages

Asteroids

ByMarcello Fulchignoni

chapter |1 pages

Astigmatism

chapter |1 pages

Astrid

chapter |1 pages

Astro

chapter |1 pages

Astro

chapter |1 pages

Astro Space Center, Moscow

chapter |1 pages

Astrochemistry

chapter |1 pages

Astrodynamics

chapter |1 pages

Astrolabe

ByMichael Hoskin

chapter |3 pages

Astrology

ByDavid Pingree

chapter |12 pages

Astrometric Surveys

ByCarlos E. López

chapter |1 pages

Astrometry

chapter |9 pages

Astrometry with Hubble Space Telescope

ByGeorge F Benedict

chapter |4 pages

Astrometry: History

ByAllan Chapman

chapter |9 pages

Astrometry: Telescopes and Techniques

ByNorbert Zacharias

chapter |1 pages

Astron

chapter |1 pages

Astronomical Institute of Athens

chapter |1 pages

Astronomical Observing Notebooks for Amateurs

ByPatrick Moore

chapter |2 pages

Astronomical Photography by Amateurs with Telescopes

ByNik Szymanek

chapter |4 pages

Astronomical Societies and Publications

ByVirginia Trimble, Michael Hoskin

chapter |1 pages

Astronomical Society of Australia

chapter |1 pages

Astronomical Society of the Pacific

chapter |7 pages

Astronomical Spectroscopy

ByPaul Ho

chapter |1 pages

Astronomical Unit

chapter |2 pages

Astronomical Wide-field CCD Imaging by Amateurs

ByNik Szymanek

chapter |1 pages

Astronomische Gesellschaft

chapter |1 pages

Astronomy

chapter |1 pages

Astronomy and Astrophysics in India

ByJayant Narlikar

chapter |2 pages

Astronomy on the Web

ByRichard Tresch Feinberg

chapter |3 pages

Astrophysical Bounds on Particle Properties

ByGeorg G Raffelt

chapter |1 pages

Astrophysical Institute, Potsdam

chapter |3 pages

Astrophysical Jets

ByR D Blandford

chapter |1 pages

Astrophysics

chapter |6 pages

Astrophysics to 1900

ByJack Meadows

chapter |1 pages

Atacama Large Millimeter Array

chapter |1 pages

Atmospheric Pressure

chapter |1 pages

Atmospheric refraction

chapter |1 pages

Atom

chapter |1 pages

Aureole

chapter |1 pages

Auriga

chapter |6 pages

Aurora

ByGérard Thuillier

chapter |2 pages

Aurorae: Observing by Amateurs

ByKarenne Barnes

chapter |4 pages

Auroral Kilometric Radiation

ByDominique Le Quéau, Philippe Louarn

chapter |1 pages

Australia Telescope National Facility

chapter |4 pages

Australian Astronomy

ByJ Gordon Robertson

chapter |1 pages

Auzout, Adrien (1622–91)

chapter |1 pages

Axis (pl: axes)

chapter |1 pages

Azimuth

chapter |1 pages

Babbage, Charles (1792–1871)

chapter |4 pages

Babylonian Astronomy

ByAlexander Jones

chapter |1 pages

Backlund, Jöns Oskar (1846–1916)

chapter |1 pages

Baffin, William (c 1584–1622)

chapter |1 pages

Bailey, Solon Irving (1854–1931)

chapter |1 pages

Bailly, Jean Sylvain (1736–93)

chapter |1 pages

Baily, Francis (1774-1844)

chapter |1 pages

Baily's Beads

chapter |1 pages

Ball, Sir Robert Stawell (1840–1913)

chapter |1 pages

Balmer, Johann Jakob (1825–98)

chapter |1 pages

Banneker, Benjamin (1731–1806)

chapter |1 pages

Bappu, Manali Kallat Vainu (1927–82)

chapter |1 pages

Barlow Lens

chapter |1 pages

Barlow, Peter (1776–1862)

chapter |1 pages

Barnard, Edward Emerson (1857–1923)

chapter |1 pages

Barnard's Loop (Sh2-276)

chapter |1 pages

Barnard's Star

chapter |1 pages

Barred Spiral Galaxy

chapter |1 pages

Barringer, Daniel Moreau (1860–1929)

chapter |1 pages

Barycenter

chapter |2 pages

Baryogenesis (baryon genesis or matter/antimatter asymmetry)

ByEdward Kolb

chapter |1 pages

Baryons

chapter |1 pages

Bayer, Johann (1572–1625)

chapter |4 pages

Be Stars

ByGeraldine J Peters

chapter |1 pages

Becklin–Neugebauer Object (BN Object)

chapter |1 pages

Beer, Wilhelm (1797–1850)

chapter |1 pages

Beijing Astronomical Observatory

chapter |1 pages

Bennett, Willard Harrison (1903–87)

chapter |1 pages

Bessel, Friedrich Wilhelm (1784–1846)

chapter |1 pages

Beta Pictoris

chapter |1 pages

Beta Regio

chapter |1 pages

Betelgeuse

chapter |1 pages

Bethe, Hans Albrecht (1906–)

chapter |1 pages

Bevis, John (1695–1771)

chapter |1 pages

Biela, Wilhelm von (1782–1856)

chapter |1 pages

Bielids

chapter |1 pages

Big Bang Theory

chapter |1 pages

Big Bear Solar Observatory

chapter |1 pages

Big Dipper

chapter |3 pages

Binary Stars in Globular Clusters

ByMario L Mateo

chapter |3 pages

Binary Stars in Planetary Nebulae

ByHoward E Bond

chapter |1 pages

Binary Stars: Detached

ByDirk Terrell

chapter |7 pages

Binary Stars: Overview

ByVirginia Trimble

chapter |1 pages

Binary System

chapter |3 pages

Binocular Astronomy

ByPatrick Moore

chapter |1 pages

Biot, Jean-Baptiste (1774–1862)

chapter |1 pages

Birkeland, Kristian (1868–1917)

chapter |1 pages

BiSON Network

chapter |1 pages

BL Lacertae

ByJoseph E Pesce

chapter |8 pages

BL Lacertae Objects

ByJohn T Stocke, Travis A Rector

chapter |1 pages

Blaauw, Adriaan (1914)

chapter |1 pages

Black Drop

chapter |1 pages

Black Eye Galaxy

chapter |1 pages

Black Hole

chapter |1 pages

Black-Body Radiation

chapter |5 pages

Black-Hole Candidates in X-ray Binaries

ByPhilip A Charles

chapter |1 pages

Blazar

chapter |1 pages

Blink Comparator

chapter |1 pages

Blinking Planetary (NGC 6826)

chapter |1 pages

Bliss, Nathaniel (1700–64)

chapter |5 pages

Blue Stars at High Galactic Latitudes

ByJohn S Drilling

chapter |6 pages

Blue Stragglers

ByMike Shara

chapter |1 pages

Bode, Johann Elert (1747–1826)

chapter |1 pages

Bode's Law

chapter |1 pages

Bok, Bart Jan (1906–83)

chapter |1 pages

Bolide

chapter |1 pages

Bolton, John Gatenby (1922–93)

chapter |1 pages

Bondi, Hermann (1919–)

chapter |1 pages

Bonestell, Chesley (1888–1986)

chapter |2 pages

BOOMERANG

ByPaolo de Bernardis

chapter |1 pages

Boötes

chapter |1 pages

Borelli, Giovanni Alfonso (1608–79)

chapter |1 pages

Boscovich, Ruggero Giuseppe (1711–87)

chapter |1 pages

Bouguer, Pierre (1698–1758)

chapter |1 pages

Boulliau, Ismael (1605–94)

chapter |1 pages

Bouvard, Alexis (1767–1843)

chapter |1 pages

Bowditch, Nathaniel (1773–1838)

chapter |1 pages

Boyle, Willard S (1924–)

chapter |1 pages

Boys, Charles Vernon (1855–1944)

chapter |1 pages

Bradley, James (1693–1762)

chapter |1 pages

Brahmagupta (c 598–c 665)

chapter |1 pages

Brashear, John Alfred (1840–1920)

chapter |1 pages

Brattle, Thomas (1658–1713)

chapter |1 pages

Braun, Wernher von (1912–77)

chapter |1 pages

Breccia

chapter |1 pages

Briggs, Henry (1561–1630)

chapter |4 pages

Bright Quasar 3C 273

ByThierry J-L Courvoisier

chapter |1 pages

British Astronomical Association

chapter |3 pages

British Astronomy

ByPaul Murdin

chapter |1 pages

Brorsen, Theodore (1819–95)

chapter |1 pages

Brouwer, Dirk (1902–66)

chapter |1 pages

Brown, Ernest William (1866–1938)

chapter |1 pages

Brown, Robert Hanbury (1916–)

chapter |1 pages

Bruno, Giordano (1548–1600)

chapter |1 pages

Bubble Nebula (NGC 7635)

chapter |1 pages

Burnham, Sherburne Wesley (1838–1921)

chapter |1 pages

Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory

chapter |1 pages

Caelum

chapter |1 pages

Cagliari Astronomical Observatory

chapter |1 pages

Calar Alto Observatory

chapter |1 pages

Calendar

ByP Kenneth Seidelmann

chapter |3 pages

Calendar in the Middle East and Europe

ByRichard A Jarrell

chapter |1 pages

California Nebula (NGC 1499)

chapter |3 pages

Callisto

ByG Schubert, J Klemaszewski

chapter |1 pages

Caloris Basin

chapter |1 pages

Caltech Submillimeter Observatory

chapter |1 pages

Camelopardalis

chapter |8 pages

Cameras

ByE Harvey Richardson

chapter |1 pages

Campani, Giuseppe (1635–1715)

chapter |1 pages

Campbell, William Wallace (1862–1938)

chapter |1 pages

Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope

chapter |4 pages

Canadian Astronomy

ByPeter Broughton

chapter |1 pages

Canals (Martian)

chapter |1 pages

Cancer

chapter |1 pages

Candy, Michael Philip (1928–94)

chapter |1 pages

Canes Venatici

chapter |1 pages

Canis Major

chapter |1 pages

Canis Minor

chapter |1 pages

Cannon, Annie Jump (1863–1941)

chapter |1 pages

Canopus

chapter |1 pages

Cape York Meteorite

chapter |5 pages

Capella

ByT R Ayres

chapter |1 pages

Capricornus

chapter |3 pages

Carbon Stars

ByGeorge Wallerstein

chapter |1 pages

Carbonaceous Chondrite

chapter |1 pages

Carina

chapter |1 pages

Carlsberg Meridian Telescope

chapter |1 pages

Carnegie Observatories

chapter |1 pages

Carter National Observatory

chapter |1 pages

Cartwheel Galaxy

chapter |1 pages

Cassegrain Telescope

chapter |1 pages

Cassegrain, Laurent (c. 1629–93)

chapter |1 pages

Cassini Dynasty

chapter |8 pages

Cassini/Huygens Mission

ByJean-Pierre Lebreton, Dennis L Matson

chapter |1 pages

Cassiopeia

chapter |1 pages

Cassiopeia A

chapter |1 pages

Castelli, Benedetto (1578–1643)

chapter |1 pages

Castor

chapter |1 pages

Cat's Eye Nebula (NGC 6543)

chapter |6 pages

Cataclysmic Binaries: Classical and Recurrent Novae

ByBrian Warner

chapter |2 pages

Cataclysmic Variables: the Magnetic Systems

ByBrian Warner

chapter |1 pages

Cavendish, Henry (1731–1810)

chapter |2 pages

CCDs, Filters and CCD Photometry for Amateurs

ByN Szymanek

chapter |3 pages

Celestial Coordinates

ByP K Seidelman

chapter |1 pages

Celestial Equator

chapter |1 pages

Celestial Latitude

chapter |1 pages

Celestial Longitude

chapter |4 pages

Celestial Mechanics

ByCarl D Murray

chapter |6 pages

Celestial Mechanics in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries

ByCurtis Wilson

chapter |1 pages

Celestial Poles

chapter |1 pages

Celestial Sphere

chapter |1 pages

Celsius, Anders (1701–44)

chapter |1 pages

Centaurs

chapter |1 pages

Centaurus

chapter |1 pages

Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales

chapter |3 pages

Cepheid Period–Luminosity Relation

ByBarry F Madore, Wendy L Freedman

chapter |1 pages

Cepheus

chapter |1 pages

Ceres

chapter |1 pages

CERN

chapter |1 pages

Cetus

chapter |3 pages

CH Cygni

ByScott Kenyon

chapter |2 pages

CH Stars and Barium Stars

ByHoward E Bond, Edward M Sion

chapter |1 pages

Challis, James (1803–82)

chapter |1 pages

Chamaeleon

chapter |2 pages

Chandra X-ray Observatory

ByMartin Elvis

chapter |1 pages

Chandrasekhar, Subrahmanyan (1910–95)

chapter |2 pages

Charge-coupled Device

ByMichael Lesser

chapter |1 pages

Chaucer, Geoffrey (c. 1343–1400)

chapter |9 pages

Chemical Compositions of Stars

ByDavid Leckrone

chapter |1 pages

Chicxulub Basin

chapter |1 pages

Chinese Astronomical Society

chapter |3 pages

Chinese Astronomy

ByQibin Li

chapter |4 pages

Chinese Astronomy in History

ByNathan Sivin

chapter |4 pages

Chiron

ByJoel Wm Parker

chapter |5 pages

Chondrites

ByDerek Sears

chapter |1 pages

Christiansen, Wilbur Norman (1913–)

chapter |1 pages

Chromatic Aberration

chapter |7 pages

Chromosphere

ByBrigitte Schmieder

chapter |3 pages

Chromosphere: Emerging Flux Regions

ByV Martínez Pillet

chapter |6 pages

Chromosphere: Fibrils

ByDouglas Rabin

chapter |3 pages

Chromosphere: Heating Mechanisms

ByP Ulmschneider

chapter |3 pages

Chromosphere: Magnetic Canopy

ByOskar Steiner

chapter |3 pages

Chromosphere: Network

ByRobert J Rutten, Hermance J Hagenaar

chapter |3 pages

Chromosphere: Spicules

ByJ M Beckers

chapter |5 pages

Chromosphere: Thermal Bifurcation

ByT R Ayres

chapter |1 pages

Cidenas (fl. fourth century BC)

chapter |1 pages

Circinus

chapter |1 pages

Circumpolar Stars

chapter |1 pages

Clairaut, Alexis Claude (1713–65)

chapter |1 pages

Clarke, Arthur C (1917–)

chapter |7 pages

Classification of Stellar Spectra

ByR F Garrison

chapter |1 pages

Clavius, Christoph (1538–1612)

chapter |1 pages

Clementine

chapter |9 pages

Climate

ByJonathan I Lunine

chapter |6 pages

Close Binary Stars

ByPeter Eggleton

chapter |8 pages

Close Binary Stars: Formation and Evolution

ByGerrit J Savonije

chapter |12 pages

Clouds in Planetary Atmospheres

ByRobert West

chapter |1 pages

Clown Face Nebula (NGC 2392)

chapter |1 pages

Cluster

chapter |6 pages

Cluster Membership

ByImants Platais

chapter |1 pages

Cluster of Galaxies

chapter |1 pages

Co-orbital Satellites

chapter |1 pages

Coalsack

chapter |1 pages

Collimation

chapter |11 pages

Collisionless Processes in Astrophysical Plasmas

ByRudolf A Treumann, Manfred Scholer

chapter |1 pages

Colombo, Guiseppe (`Bepi') (1920–84)

chapter |1 pages

Columba

chapter |1 pages

Coma

chapter |1 pages

Coma Berenices

chapter |4 pages

Coma Cluster

ByMatthew Colless

chapter |1 pages

Coma, Cometary

chapter |1 pages

Combustion

chapter |1 pages

Comet Arend–Roland (C/1956 R1)

chapter |1 pages

Comet Bennett (C/1969 Y1)

chapter |1 pages

Comet Biela (3D/Biela)

chapter |1 pages

Comet de Chéseaux (C/1743 X1)

chapter |1 pages

Comet Donati (C/1858 L1)

chapter |1 pages

Comet Encke (2P/Encke)

chapter |1 pages

Comet Family

chapter |3 pages

Comet Hale–Bopp (C/1995 O1)

ByJacques Crovisier

chapter |4 pages

Comet Halley (1P/Halley)

ByArmand H Delsemme

chapter |2 pages

Comet Hyakutake (C/1996 B2)

ByJacques Crovisier

chapter |6 pages

Comet Ikeya-Seki (C/1965 S1)

ByClaude Arpigny

chapter |1 pages

Comet Kohoutek (C/1973 E1)

chapter |1 pages

Comet LINEAR (C/1999 S4)

ByPam Spence

chapter |1 pages

Comet West (C/1975 V1)

chapter |9 pages

Cometary Atmospheres

ByDominique Bockelée-Morvan

chapter |1 pages

Cometary Globule

chapter |5 pages

Cometary Nuclei

ByNicolas Thomas

chapter |7 pages

Cometary Tails

ByM Fulle

chapter |11 pages

Comets

ByJacques Crovisier

chapter |1 pages

Comets: Amateur Observing by Photography

ByStephen J Edberg

chapter |5 pages

Comets: Kreutz Sungrazing

ByDouglas A Biesecker

chapter |2 pages

Comets: Observing with CCDs by Amateurs

ByGiovanni Sostero

chapter |2 pages

Comets: Search and Discovery

ByJon Shanklin

chapter |1 pages

Common, Andrew (1841–1903)

chapter |3 pages

Compact Groups of Galaxies

ByPaul Hickson

chapter |1 pages

Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO)

chapter |1 pages

Comrie, Leslie John (1893–1950)

chapter |1 pages

Cone Nebula

chapter |1 pages

Conic Sections

chapter |1 pages

Conjunction

chapter |3 pages

Constellation

chapter |3 pages

Constellation Maps

ByPatrick Moore

chapter |5 pages

Constellations, Stars and Deep-Sky Objects: Nomenclature

ByJohn Woodruff

chapter |1 pages

Continuous Spectrum

chapter |1 pages

Contour (Comet Nucleus Tour)

chapter |1 pages

Cook, James (1728–79)

chapter |3 pages

Cooling Flows

ByA C Fabian

chapter |1 pages

Copernican System

chapter |1 pages

Copernicus (Crater)

chapter |1 pages

Copernicus (OAO-3)

chapter |1 pages

Cor Caroli

chapter |1 pages

Core

chapter |7 pages

Corona

ByLen Culhane

chapter |1 pages

Corona Australis

chapter |1 pages

Corona Borealis

chapter |3 pages

Coronagraphs

ByGeorge Simnett

chapter |5 pages

Coronal Cavities

ByKaren Harvey

chapter |7 pages

Coronal Heating Mechanisms

ByJ Heyvaerts

chapter |6 pages

Coronal Holes

BySteven R Cranmer

chapter |10 pages

Coronal Loops

ByChristopher Durrant

chapter |8 pages

Coronal Streamers

ByS Koutchmy

chapter |1 pages

Coronas

chapter |1 pages

Coronelli, Vincenzo Maria (1650–1718)

chapter |3 pages

Correlation Function and Power Spectra in Cosmology

ByCarlton Baugh

chapter |3 pages

Correlators

ByWarwick Wilson

chapter |1 pages

Corvus

chapter |1 pages

COS-B (Celestial Observation Satellite)

chapter |1 pages

Cosimo II de' Medici (1590–1621)

chapter |1 pages

Cosmic Abundance of Elements

chapter |4 pages

Cosmic Background Explorer: COBE

ByGeorge Smoot

chapter |8 pages

Cosmic Magnetic Fields: Origin of

ByRichard Wielebinski

chapter |7 pages

Cosmic Microwave Background

ByEdward Wright

chapter |9 pages

Cosmic Rays

ByMartin A Lee

chapter |5 pages

Cosmic Rays: Extensive Air Showers

ByJordan A Goodman, Robert W Ellsworth

chapter |6 pages

Cosmic Rays: Propagation in the Heliosphere

ByR Bruce McKibben

chapter |1 pages

Cosmological Model

chapter |1 pages

Cosmological Principle

chapter |1 pages

Cosmology

chapter |4 pages

Cosmology: A Brief History

ByJ V Narlikar

chapter |11 pages

Cosmology: Standard Model

ByJohn Peacock

chapter |1 pages

Cosmos

chapter |1 pages

Cotes, Roger (1682–1716)

chapter |1 pages

Cowling, Thomas George (1906–90)

chapter |1 pages

Crab Nebula (M1, NGC 1952)

chapter |1 pages

Crab Pulsar

chapter |1 pages

Crabtree, William (1610–44)

chapter |1 pages

Crater Constellation

chapter |7 pages

Craters

ByYves Langevin

chapter |1 pages

Crescent

chapter |1 pages

Crimean Astrophysical Observatory

chapter |1 pages

Critical Density

chapter |1 pages

Crust

chapter |1 pages

Crux

chapter |1 pages

Cubewano

chapter |1 pages

Culmination

chapter |1 pages

Culpeper, Nicholas (1616–54)

chapter |1 pages

Cunitz [Cunitia], Maria (1610–64)

chapter |1 pages

Curtis, Heber Doust (1872–1942)

chapter |1 pages

Cusp Cap

chapter |1 pages

Cygnus

chapter |1 pages

Cygnus A

chapter |1 pages

Cygnus Loop

chapter |4 pages

Cygnus X-1

ByC T Bolton

chapter |1 pages

d'Arrest, Heinrich Louis (1822–75)

chapter |1 pages

Danish Space Research Institute

chapter |1 pages

Dante Alighieri (1265–1321)

chapter |3 pages

Dark Matter in Galaxies

ByKen Freeman

chapter |8 pages

Dark Matter: Its Nature

ByGeorg G Raffelt

chapter |1 pages

Dark Nebula

chapter |1 pages

Darwin, George Howard (1845–1912)

chapter |1 pages

Davenport, William (1782–1823)

chapter |1 pages

David Dunlap Observatory

chapter |1 pages

Dawes, William Rutter (1799–1868)

chapter |1 pages

Dawes' Limit

chapter |1 pages

Day

chapter |3 pages

DB Pulsating Stars

ByD E Winget

chapter |1 pages

de Chéseaux, Philippe Loys (1718–51)

chapter |1 pages

de Sitter, Willem (1872–1934)

chapter |1 pages

Deceleration Parameter

chapter |1 pages

Declination

chapter |1 pages

Dee, John (1527–1608)

chapter |1 pages

Deep Impact

chapter |1 pages

Deep Space (Space Technology)

chapter |1 pages

Deep Space 1

ByPam Spence

chapter |1 pages

Degenerate Matter

chapter |1 pages

Delaunay, Charles Eugene (1816–72)

chapter |1 pages

Delphinus

chapter |1 pages

Delta Aquarids

chapter |1 pages

Delta Cephei

chapter |1 pages

Deneb

chapter |1 pages

Density

chapter |1 pages

Descartes, René (1596–1650)

chapter |2 pages

Detection of Faint Objects

ByBruce A Peterson

chapter |3 pages

Detectors: Photography

ByDavid Malin

chapter |6 pages

Detectors: Superconducting Tunnel Junction Devices

ByA Peacock

chapter |1 pages

Diamond Ring

chapter |1 pages

Dichotomy

chapter |1 pages

Dicke, Robert Henry (1916–)

chapter |1 pages

Differential Rotation

chapter |1 pages

Differentiation

chapter |1 pages

Diffraction

chapter |1 pages

Diffraction Grating

chapter |3 pages

Diffuse Interstellar Bands

ByTheodore P Snow

chapter |1 pages

Dione

chapter |1 pages

Direct Motion

chapter |1 pages

Disconnection Event

chapter |7 pages

Disk Galaxies

ByJay Gallagher, Linda Sparke, Lynn Matthews

chapter |1 pages

Dispersion

chapter |6 pages

Distances (from Antiquity to 1900)

ByRichard A Jarrell, Michael Hoskin

chapter |8 pages

Distribution of Galaxies, Clusters, and Superclusters

ByMarc Postman

chapter |1 pages

Diurnal Motion

chapter |3 pages

Divided Instruments

ByAllan Chapman

chapter |1 pages

Divini, Eustachio (1610–85)

chapter |1 pages

Dixon, Jeremiah (1733–79)

chapter |1 pages

Dobson Unit

chapter |1 pages

Dobsonian Telescope

chapter |1 pages

Dollond, John (1706–61)

chapter |1 pages

Dome

chapter |1 pages

Dominion Astrophysical Observatory

chapter |1 pages

Doppler Effect

chapter |1 pages

Dorado

chapter |1 pages

Double Star

chapter |2 pages

Double Stars: Visual and Imaging Observations by Amateurs

ByRobert Argyle

chapter |1 pages

Douglass, Andrew Ellicott (1867–1962)

chapter |2 pages

DQ Herculis

ByMatt A Wood

chapter |1 pages

Draco

chapter |1 pages

Drake, Frank Donald (1930–)

chapter |1 pages

Draper, Henry (1837–82)

chapter |1 pages

Dreyer, John Louis Emil (1852–1926)

chapter |1 pages

Dubhe

chapter |1 pages

Dudley Observatory

chapter |1 pages

Dumbbell Nebula (M27, NGC 6853)

chapter |1 pages

Dunér, Nils Christoffel (1839–1914)

chapter |1 pages

Dunlop, James (1793–1848)

chapter |1 pages

Dunsink Observatory

chapter |1 pages

Dust Tail, Cometary

chapter |8 pages

Dusty Circumstellar Disks

ByBen Zuckerman

chapter |4 pages

Dutch Astronomy

ByWilfried Boland

chapter |4 pages

Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies

ByNelson Caldwell

chapter |1 pages

Dwarf Galaxy

chapter |2 pages

Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

ByEline Tolstoy

chapter |4 pages

Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

ByMario Mateo

chapter |1 pages

Dwingeloo Observatory

chapter |1 pages

Dyer Observatory

chapter |2 pages

Dynamical Reference Frame

ByP Kenneth Seidelmann

chapter |7 pages

Dynamics

ByJames Binney

chapter |1 pages

Dynamics Explorer (Explorer 62 and 63)

chapter |6 pages

Dynamo Theory

ByKeith Moffatt

chapter |3 pages

Dynamos: Solar and Stellar

ByRobert Rosner

chapter |1 pages

Dyson, Sir Frank Watson (1868–1939)

chapter |1 pages

Eagle Nebula (IC 4703)

chapter |3 pages

Earth: Space-based Observations

ByDavid D Herring, Michael D King

chapter |9 pages

Earth's Atmosphere

ByEric Chassefière

chapter |5 pages

Earth's Interior

ByPaul D, Jr Lowman

chapter |8 pages

Earth's Rotation

ByNicole Capitaine, Christian Bizouard

chapter |3 pages

Earth's Rotation: Theory

ByVeronique Dehant

chapter |1 pages

Earthshine

chapter |1 pages

Eckert, Wallace John (1902–71)

chapter |9 pages

Eclipse

ByJay M Pasachoff

chapter |7 pages

Eclipsing Binary Stars

ByR E Wilson

chapter |1 pages

Ecliptic

chapter |1 pages

Ecosphere

chapter |1 pages

Edgeworth, Kenneth Essex (1880–1972)

chapter |1 pages

Education

ByPaul Murdin, Patrick Moore

chapter |4 pages

Effective Temperature Scale and Bolometric Corrections

ByRichard Gray

chapter |1 pages

Effelsberg Radio Telescope

chapter |1 pages

Egg Nebula (CRL 2688)

chapter |1 pages

Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2)

ByPeter Bond

chapter |1 pages

Einstein, Albert (1879–1955)

chapter |1 pages

EISCAT

chapter |1 pages

Ejecta

chapter |1 pages

Electromagnetic Radiation

chapter |1 pages

Electromagnetic Spectrum

chapter |1 pages

Electron

chapter |1 pages

Electronvolt

chapter |1 pages

Electroweak Force

chapter |1 pages

Element, Chemical

chapter |1 pages

Elementary Particles

chapter |1 pages

Ellipse

chapter |8 pages

Elliptical Galaxies

ByRoger L Davies

chapter |1 pages

Elongation

chapter |1 pages

Elsasser, Walter M (1904–91)

chapter |1 pages

Emission Spectrum

chapter |1 pages

Enceladus

chapter |1 pages

Encke, Johann Franz (1791–1865)

chapter |1 pages

Energy

chapter |4 pages

Environmental Threat to Astronomy

ByD McNally

chapter |7 pages

Ephemerides

ByJean-Eudes Arlot

chapter |1 pages

Epicurus of Samos (341–270 BC)

chapter |1 pages

Epoch

chapter |1 pages

Epsilon Aurigae

chapter |1 pages

Epsilon Lyrae

chapter |1 pages

Equation of Time

chapter |1 pages

Equator-S

chapter |1 pages

Equatorial Mounting

chapter |1 pages

Equinox

chapter |1 pages

Equuleus

chapter |1 pages

Erfle, Heinrich Valentin (1884–1923)

chapter |1 pages

Eridanus

chapter |1 pages

Eros

chapter |1 pages

Escape Velocity

chapter |1 pages

Eta Aquarids

chapter |1 pages

Eta Carinae

chapter |1 pages

Eta Carinae Nebula

chapter |1 pages

Ether (or Aether)

chapter |1 pages

Eudoxus of Cnidus (c. 400–c. 347 BC)

chapter |1 pages

Euler, Leonhard (1707–83)

chapter |1 pages

Euro-Asian Astronomical Society

chapter |4 pages

Europa