Image synthesis across and within medical imaging modalities is an active area of research with broad applications in radiology and radiation oncology. This book covers the principles and methods of medical image synthesis, along with state-of-the-art research.

First, various traditional non-learning-based, traditional machine-learning-based, and recent deep-learning-based medical image synthesis methods are reviewed. Second, specific applications of different inter- and intra-modality image synthesis tasks and of synthetic image-aided segmentation and registration are introduced and summarized, listing and highlighting the proposed methods, study designs, and reported performances with the related clinical applications of representative studies. Third, the clinical usages of medical image synthesis, such as treatment planning and image-guided adaptive radiotherapy, are discussed. Last, the limitations and current challenges of various medical synthesis applications are explored, along with future trends and potential solutions to solve these difficulties.

The benefits of medical image synthesis have sparked growing interest in a number of advanced clinical applications, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-only radiation therapy treatment planning and positron emission tomography (PET)/MRI scanning. This book will be a comprehensive and exciting resource for undergraduates, graduates, researchers, and practitioners.

Part 1: Methods and Principles  1. Non-Deep-Learning-Based Medical Image Synthesis Methods  2. Deep Learning-Based Medical Image Synthesis Methods  Part 2: Applications of Inter-Modality Image Synthesis  3. MRI-Based Image Synthesis  4. CBCT/CT-Based Image Synthesis  5. CT-Based DVF/Ventilation/Perfusion Imaging  6. Image-Based Dose Planning Prediction  Part 3: Applications of Intra-Modality Image Synthesis  7. Medical Imaging Denoising  8. Attenuation Correction for Quantitative PET/MR Imaging  9. High-Resolution Medical Image Estimation  10. 2D-3D Transformation for 3D Volumetric Imaging  11. Multi-Modality MRI Synthesis  12. Multi-Energy CT Transformation and Virtual Monoenergetic Imaging  13. Metal Artifact Reduction  Part 4: Other Applications of Medical Image Synthesis  14. Synthetic Image-Aided Segmentation  15. Synthetic Image-Aided Registration  16. CT Image Standardization Using Deep Image Synthesis Models  Part 5: Clinic Usage of Medical Image Synthesis  17. Image-Guided Adaptive Radiotherapy  Part 6: Perspectives  18. Validation and Evaluation Metrics  19. Limitation and Future Trends