Drawing on the work of internationally acclaimed experts in the field, Handbook of Item Response Theory, Volume 3: Applications presents applications of item response theory to practical testing problems. While item response theory may be known primarily for its advances in theoretical modeling of responses to test items, equal progress has been made in its providing innovative solutions to daily testing problems. This third volume in a three-volume set highlights the major applications.

Specifically, this volume covers applications to test item calibration, item analysis, model fit checking, test-score interpretation, optimal test design, adaptive testing, standard setting, and forensic analyses of response data. It describes advances in testing in areas such as large-scale educational assessment, psychological testing, health measurement, and measurement of change. In addition, it extensively reviews computer programs available to run any of the models and applications in Volume One and Three.


  • Includes contributions from internationally acclaimed experts with a history of advancing applications of item response theory
  • Provides extensive cross-referencing and common notation across all chapters in this three-volume set
  • Underscores the importance of treating each application in a statistically rigorous way
  • Reviews major computer programs for item response theory analyses and applications.

Wim J. van der Linden is a distinguished scientist and director of research and innovation at Pacific Metrics Corporation. Dr. van der Linden is also a professor emeritus of measurement and data analysis at the University of Twente. His research interests include test theory, adaptive testing, optimal test assembly, parameter linking, test equating, and response-time modeling as well as decision theory and its applications to problems of educational decision making.

section I|104 pages

Item Calibration and Analysis

section II|60 pages

Person Fit and Scoring

section III|130 pages

Test Design

chapter 9|30 pages

Optimal Test Design

chapter 10|32 pages

Adaptive Testing

chapter 11|20 pages

Standard Setting

chapter 13|28 pages

Item and Test Security

section IV|110 pages

Areas of Application

chapter 14|16 pages

Large-Scale Group-Score Assessments

chapter 15|16 pages

Psychological Testing

chapter 16|20 pages

Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment

chapter 18|22 pages

Marketing Research

section V|162 pages

Computer Programs

chapter 22|12 pages


chapter 23|8 pages


chapter 24|14 pages


chapter 25|12 pages

Xcalibre 4

chapter 26|14 pages


chapter 27|12 pages

ACER ConQuest

chapter 28|12 pages


chapter 29|14 pages


chapter 30|8 pages

Latent GOLD

chapter 31|6 pages


chapter 32|10 pages


chapter 33|10 pages