There is perhaps no facet of modern society where the influence of computer automation has not been felt. Flight management systems for pilots, diagnostic and surgical aids for physicians, navigational displays for drivers, and decision-aiding systems for air-traffic controllers, represent only a few of the numerous domains in which powerful new automation technologies have been introduced. The benefits that have been reaped from this technological revolution have been many. At the same time, automation has not always worked as planned by designers, and many problems have arisen--from minor inefficiencies of operation to large-scale, catastrophic accidents. Understanding how humans interact with automation is vital for the successful design of new automated systems that are both safe and efficient.

The influence of automation technology on human performance has often been investigated in a fragmentary, isolated manner, with investigators conducting disconnected studies in different domains. There has been little contact between these endeavors, although principles gleaned from one domain may have implications for another. Also, with a few exceptions, the research has tended to be empirical and only theory-driven. In recent years, however, various groups of investigators have begun to examine human performance in automated systems in general and to develop theories of human interaction with automation technology.

This book presents the current theories and assesses the impact of automation on different aspects of human performance. Both basic and applied research is presented to highlight the general principles of human-computer interaction in several domains where automation technologies are widely implemented. The major premise is that a broad-based, theory-driven approach will have significant implications for the effective design of both current and future automation technologies. This volume will be of considerable value to researchers in human

part 1|87 pages

Theories and Major Concepts

chapter 1|15 pages

Decomposing Automation: Apparent Simplicity, Real Complexity

ByDavid D. Woods

chapter 2|17 pages

Operator Reliance on Automation: Theory and Data

ByVictor Riley

chapter 3|27 pages

Theoretical Perspectives on Adaptive Automation

ByMark W. Scerbo

chapter 4|23 pages

A Theoretical Framework for Representational Design

ByJohn M. Flach, Kevin B. Bennett

part 2|175 pages

Assessment of Human Performance in Automated Systems

chapter 5|25 pages

Monitoring of Automated Systems

ByRaja Parasuraman, Mustapha Mouloua, Robert Molloy, Brian Hilburn

chapter 6|20 pages

Pilot Workload and Flightdeck Automation

ByBarry H. Kantowitz, John L. Campbell

chapter 7|26 pages

Psychophysiological Measures of Workload: Potential Applications to Adaptively Automated Systems

ByArthur F. Kramer, Leonard J. Trejo, Darryl G. Humphrey

chapter 8|19 pages

Automation and Situation Awareness

ByMica R. Endsley

chapter 9|18 pages

Vigilance and Workload in Automated Systems

ByJoel S. Warm, William N. Dember, Peter A. Hancock

chapter 10|20 pages

Human Decision Makers and Automated Decision Aids: Made for Each Other?

ByKathleen L. Mosier, Linda J. Skitka

chapter 11|22 pages

Supervisory Control and the Design of Intelligent User Interfaces

ByBruce G. Coury, Ralph D. Semmel

chapter 12|21 pages

Team Performance in Automated Systems

ByClint A. Bowers, Randall L. Oser, Eduardo Salas, Janls A. Cannon-Bowers

part 3|182 pages


chapter 14|37 pages

Fault Management in Aviation Systems

ByWilliam H. Rogers, Paul C. Schutte, Kara A. Latorella

chapter 15|18 pages

Air Traffic System Automation

ByV. David Hopkin, John A. Wise

chapter 16|28 pages

Driver-Centered Issues in Advanced Automation for Motor Vehicles

ByP. A. Hancock, Raja Parasuraman, Evan A. Byrne

chapter 17|20 pages

Maritime Automation

ByJohn D. Lee, Thomas F. Sanquist

chapter 18|22 pages

Decision Support in Medical Systems

ByStephanie Guerlain, Philip J. Smith, Jack W. Smith, Sally Rudmann, Jodi Obradovich, Patricia Strohm

chapter 19|20 pages

Automation in Quality Control and Maintenance

ByColin G. Drury

part 4|51 pages

Future Trends

chapter 21|12 pages

Speculations on Future Relations Between Humans and Automation

ByThomas B. Sheridan

chapter 22|37 pages

Teleology for Technology

ByP. A. Hancock