Augmented reality (AR) is transforming how we work, learn, play and connect with the world, and is now being introduced to the field of medicine, where it is revolutionising healthcare as pioneering virtual elements are being added to real images to provide a more compelling and intuitive view during procedures.

This book, which had its beginnings at the AE-CAI: Augmented Environments for Computer-Assisted Interventions MICCAI Workshop in Munich in 2015, is the first to review the area of mixed and augmented reality in medicine.

Covering a range of examples of the use of AR in medicine, it explores its relevance to minimally-invasive interventions, how it can improve the accuracy of a procedure and reduce procedure time, and how it may be employed to reduce radiation risks. It also discusses how AR can be an effective tool in the education of physicians, medical students, nurses and other health professionals.


  • An ideal practical guide for medical professionals and students looking to understand the implementation, applications, and future of AR
  • Contains the latest developments and technologies in this innovative field
  • Edited by highly respected pioneers in the field, who have been immersed in AR as well as virtual reality and image-guided surgery since their inception, with chapter contributions from subject area specialists working with AR

chapter 1|13 pages

Overview of Mixed and Augmented Reality in Medicine

ByTerry M. Peters

chapter 2|13 pages

Tracking and Calibration

ByElvis C. S. Chen, Burton Ma

chapter 3|17 pages


ByLena Maier-Hein, Stefanie Speidel, Esther Stenau, Elvis C. S. Chen, Burton Ma

chapter 4|14 pages

Display Technologies

ByUlrich Eck, Tobias Sielhorst

chapter 5|21 pages

Active Sensorimotor Augmentation in Robotics-Assisted Surgical Systems

BySeyed Farokh Atashzar, Michael Naish, Rajni V. Patel

chapter 7|16 pages

Interaction in Augmented Reality Image-Guided Surgery

BySimon Drouin, D. L. Collins, M. Kersten-Oertel

chapter 8|11 pages

Cognitive Oriented Design and Assessment of Augmented Reality in Medicine

ByPierre Jannin, Thierry Morineau

chapter 9|8 pages

Augmented Reality in Aging and Medical Education

ByPascal Fallavollita, Nassir Navab

chapter 10|19 pages

Cost Effective Simulation

A Mixed Reality Approach
ByZiv Yaniv, Özgür Güler, Ren Hui Gong

chapter 11|15 pages

Augmented Reality-Based Visualization for Echocardiographic Applications

ByGabriel Hanssen Kiss, Cameron Lowell Palmer, Ole Christian Mjølstad, Håvard Dalen, Bjørn Olav Haugen, Hans Torp

chapter 12|17 pages

Ultrasound Augmented Laparoscopy

Technology and Human Factors
ByUditha L. Jayarathne

chapter 13|14 pages

Toward Clinically Viable Ultrasound-Augmented Laparoscopic Visualization

ByXinyang Liu, Raj Shekhar

chapter 14|13 pages

Augmented Reality in Image-Guided Robotic Surgery

ByWen Pei Liu, Russell H. Taylor

chapter 16|19 pages

Augmented and Virtual Visualization for Image-Guided Cardiac Therapeutics

ByCristian A. Linte, Terry M. Peters, Michael S. Sacks

chapter 17|13 pages

3D Augmented Reality-Based Surgical Navigation and Intervention

ByZhencheng Fan, Cong Ma, Xinran Zhang, Hongen Liao

chapter 18|18 pages

Augmenting Haptic Perception in Surgical Tools

ByRandy Lee, Roberta L. Klatzky, George D. Stetten