Augmented reality (AR) is transforming how we work, learn, play and connect with the world, and is now being introduced to the field of medicine, where it is revolutionising healthcare as pioneering virtual elements are being added to real images to provide a more compelling and intuitive view during procedures.

This book, which had its beginnings at the AE-CAI: Augmented Environments for Computer-Assisted Interventions MICCAI Workshop in Munich in 2015, is the first to review the area of mixed and augmented reality in medicine.

Covering a range of examples of the use of AR in medicine, it explores its relevance to minimally-invasive interventions, how it can improve the accuracy of a procedure and reduce procedure time, and how it may be employed to reduce radiation risks. It also discusses how AR can be an effective tool in the education of physicians, medical students, nurses and other health professionals.


  • An ideal practical guide for medical professionals and students looking to understand the implementation, applications, and future of AR
  • Contains the latest developments and technologies in this innovative field
  • Edited by highly respected pioneers in the field, who have been immersed in AR as well as virtual reality and image-guided surgery since their inception, with chapter contributions from subject area specialists working with AR

chapter 2|13 pages

Tracking and Calibration

chapter 4|14 pages

Display Technologies

chapter 10|19 pages

Cost Effective Simulation

A Mixed Reality Approach

chapter 12|17 pages

Ultrasound Augmented Laparoscopy

Technology and Human Factors