With focus on the practical use of modern biotechnology for environmental sustainability, this book provides a thoughtful overview of molecular aspects of environmental studies to create a new awareness of fundamental biological processes and sustainable ecological concerns. It covers the latest research by prominent scientists in modern biology and delineates recent and prospective applications in the sub-areas of environmental biotechnology with special focus on the biodegradation of toxic pollutants, bioremediation of contaminated environments, and bioconversion of organic wastes toward a green economy and sustainable future.