This book presents an in-depth description of the Arrowhead Framework and how it fosters interoperability between IoT devices at service level, specifically addressing application. The Arrowhead Framework utilizes SOA technology and the concepts of local clouds to provide required automation capabilities such as: real time control, security, scalability, and engineering simplicity. Arrowhead Framework supports the realization of collaborative automation; it is the only IoT Framework that addresses global interoperability across multiplet SOA technologies. With these features, the Arrowhead Framework enables the design, engineering, and operation of large automation systems for a wide range of applications utilizing IoT and CPS technologies. The book provides application examples from a wide number of industrial fields e.g. airline maintenance, mining maintenance, smart production, electro-mobility, automative test, smart cities—all in response to EU societal challenges.