This book presents the major engineering achievements in underground aqueducts from around the world and throughout history. It provides valuable insights into water technologies and management with respect to durability, adaptability to the environment, and sustainability. Comparisons of the technological underground aqueduct developments from several regions are made. These technologies are the underpinning of modern achievements in water supply engineering and water management practices, and current issues of sustainability, cost-effectiveness, and decentralization have led engineers to consider combining older proven technologies with modern infrastructure advancements.

section Section I|16 pages


chapter 1|14 pages

Underground Aqueducts Types, Definitions, and General Conclusions

ByEustathios D. Chiotis

section Section II|64 pages


chapter 2|17 pages

Roman Underground Hydraulic Structures in Dalmatia, Croatia

ByKatja Marasović, Snježana Perojević, Jure Margeta

chapter 3|5 pages

Roman Underground Aqueducts in Germany

ByConstantin Canavas

chapter 4|20 pages

Updated Appraisal of Ancient Underground Aqueducts in Greece

ByPanagiota Avgerinou, Eustathios D. Chiotis, Stella Chrysoulaki, Panos Defteraios, Theodora Evangelou, Nikos M. Gigourtakis, George Kakes, Yiannis Kourtzellis, Panagiotis Koutis, Nikos Mamassis, Maria Pappa, Giorgos Peppas, Anna I. Strataridaki

chapter 5|18 pages

The Aqueduct of Eupalinos on Samos, Greece, and Its Restoration

ByCostas Zambas, George Dounias, George Angistalis

section Section III|39 pages


chapter 6|16 pages

The Past and Present of Underground Aqueducts in Algeria

ByNajet Aroua, Abdelkrim (Krimo) Dahmen

chapter 7|9 pages

The Water Supply History of Underground Aqueducts in Egypt

ByAbdelkader T. Ahmed, Mohamed H. Elsanabary

chapter 8|11 pages

Qanāt Evolution and Use in Libya

ByAbdulgader Abufayed

section Section IV|181 pages

Middle East

chapter 9|28 pages

Iranian Qanāts An Ancient and Sustainable Water Resources Utilization

BySaeid Eslamian, Alireza Davari, Mohammad Naser Reyhani

chapter 10|22 pages

Spring Tunnels (Niqba') The Jerusalem Hills Perspective, Israel

ByAzriel Yechezkel, Amos Frumkin

chapter 11|24 pages

Qanāt Fir'aun An Underground Roman Water System in Syria and Jordan

ByMathias Döring

chapter 12|14 pages

The Aqueducts of the Sultanate of Oman Sustainable Water-Supplying Systems Irrigating Oases Cities

ByFairouz Megdiche-Kharrat, Rachid Ragala, Mohamed Moussa

chapter 13|18 pages

Aqueducts in Saudi Arabia

ByAbdulaziz M. Al-Bassam, Faisal K. Zaidi

chapter 14|11 pages

Qana–ts of Syria

ByJosepha I. Wessels

chapter 15|20 pages

Groundwater Structures throughout Turkish History

ByZekâi Şen

chapter 16|18 pages

Aflaj Al Emarat History and Factors Affecting Recharge, Discharge, and Water Quality, United Arab Emirates

ByZeinelabidin E. Rizk, Abdulrahman S. Alsharhan

section Section V|57 pages


section Section VI|101 pages


chapter 21|22 pages

Underground Aqueducts in Japan

ByChikaosa Tanimoto, Iwanai Shimada

chapter 22|17 pages

Managing Drought through Qana–t and Water Conservation in Afghanistan

BySaifullah Khan, Saeid Eslamian

chapter 25|24 pages

Historical Development of Qanāts: Underground Aqueducts in Pakistan

BySaifullah Khan, Mahmood-Ul Hasan, Muhammad Ishaque Fani

chapter 26|13 pages

Underground Aqueduct and Water Tunneling Development in Thailand

ByVilas Nitivattananon, Dollachet Klahan, Visnu Charoen, Yin Mon Naing

section Section VII|25 pages


chapter 27|9 pages

Puquios and Aqueducts in the Central Andes of South America

ByKevin Lane

chapter 28|13 pages

The Ancient Hydraulic Catchment Systems of the Tepeaca-Acatzingo Archaeological Zone, Puebla, Mexico

ByMiguel Medina Jaen, Norma G. Peñaflores Ramírez, Jay E. Silverstein

section Section VIII|21 pages

Past, Present, and Future Trends

chapter |19 pages

Underground Aqueducts: Past, Present, and Future Trends

ByJosepha I. Wessels, Sotirios Vardakos, Herbert Weingartner, Saeid Eslamian, Andreas N. Angelakis