Glutamine: Biochemistry, Physiology, and Clinical Applications describes the different functions of glutamine (Gln) in animals and humans. Gln is both a nutrient and a signaling molecule, and its functions go beyond those of a simple metabolic fuel or protein precursor. This book has gathered together, in an unbiased and critical manner, all the available evidence and research on Gln including pathology (neurological diseases, intestinal diseases, critical illness, and cancer), physiology (successful aging), catabolic states, immunity, and exercise. Special attention is given to the potential benefit of Gln in states of insulin resistance and the role of Gln as a "conditionally essential" amino acid.

The contributors are either pioneers or experts in the area of Gln from all around the globe, including Australia, Brazil, Canada, Europe, China, and the United States. This book is a valuable source of information for nutrition scientists, medical doctors, sports scientists, food scientists, dietitians, and anyone interested in nutrition. It is also a valuable resource for students in these fields and will be an important addition to university libraries.

part I|2 pages

Basics of Glutamine Metabolism

chapter 1|18 pages

An Introduction to Glutamine Metabolism

ByVinicius Fernandes Cruzat, Philip Newsholme

part II|2 pages

New Data on the Biochemistry of Glutamine

chapter 2|12 pages

Intestinal Glutamine Synthetase Colocalizes with Goblet Cells and Decreases Enterocyte Proliferation

ByTheodorus B.M. Hakvoort, Youji He, Irene van Herk, Jacqueline L.M. Vermeulen, Jan M. Ruijter, Wouter H. Lamers

chapter 3|16 pages

Glutaminase Isoforms and Glutamine Metabolism

ByNorman P. Curthoys

part III|2 pages

Molecular and Cellular Aspects of Glutamine Metabolism

chapter 4|22 pages

Importance of Glutamine to Insulin Secretion, Insulin Action, and Glycemic Control

ByGaewyn Ellison, Cyril Mamotte, Vinicius, Fernandes Cruzat, Philip Newsholme

chapter 5|14 pages

Glutamine and Autophagy

ByRolf Gebhardt

chapter 6|12 pages

Regulation of Hepatic Glutamine and Ammonia Metabolism by Morphogens

ByMadlen Matz-Soja, Jan Böttger, Rolf Gebhardt

part IV|2 pages

Glutamine, the Brain and Neurological Diseases

chapter 7|16 pages

Brain Glutamine

Roles in Norm and Pathology
ByJan Albrecht, Monika Szeliga, Magdalena Zielińska

chapter 8|8 pages

Brain Glutamine Accumulation in Liver Failure

Role in the Pathogenesis of Central Nervous System Complications
ByRoger F. Butterworth, Chantal Bemeur

chapter 9|16 pages

Glutamate/Glutamine Cycle

Evidence of Its Role in Parkinson’s Disease Using In Vivo MRS Techniques
ByCarine Chassain, Guy Bielicki, Jean-Pierre Renou, Franck Durif

part V|2 pages

Glutamine and the Intestinal Tract

chapter 10|14 pages

Glutamine and Intestinal Physiology and Pathology

ByFrançois Blachier, Moïse Coeffier, Wei-Yun Zhu, Chunlong Mu, Yuxiang Yang, Guoyao Wu, Xiangfeng Kong, Antonio Lancha, Mireille Andriamihaja, Daniel Tomé, Yulong Yin

chapter 11|16 pages


General Facilitator of Gut Absorption and Repair
ByEssam Imseis, Yuying Liu, J. Marc Rhoads

chapter 12|18 pages

Therapeutic Role of Glutamine in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

ByHongyu Xue, Paul Wischmeyer

part VI|2 pages

Glutamine and the Catabolic State: Role of Glutamine in Critical Illness During Childhood

chapter 13|10 pages

Glutamine in the Critically Ill Neonate

ByNan Li, Liya Ma, Josef Neu

part VII|2 pages

Glutamine and the Catabolic State: Role of Glutamine in Critical Illness from Adulthood

chapter 14|14 pages

Rationale for and Efficacy of Glutamine Supplementation in Critical Illness

ByChristina C. Kao, Farook Jahoor

chapter 15|16 pages

Role of Glutamine Oxidative Injury Pathways in Critically Ill Patients

ByKaushik Mukherjee, Addison K. May, Naji N. Abumrad

chapter 16|10 pages

Glutamine Supplementation in Critical Illness

Clinical Endpoints
ByMarie Smedberg, Jan Wernerman

chapter 17|10 pages

Glutamine Supplementation in Critical Illness Action Mechanisms

ByMoïse Coëffier, Pierre Déchelotte

chapter 18|14 pages

Glutamine Supplementation in Critical Illness

Focus on Renal Injury
ByGiacomo Garibotto, Alice Bonanni, Giacomo Deferrari, Daniela Verzola

part VIII|2 pages

Glutamine and the Catabolic State: Role of Glutamine in Cancer

chapter 19|24 pages

Glutamine Transport and Metabolism in Cancer

ByBarrie P. Bode

chapter 20|10 pages

Glutamine as a New Therapeutic Target in Cancer

Use of Hyperpolarized Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
ByDominique Meynial-Denis, Jean-Pierre Renou

part IX|2 pages

Glutamine, Immunity, and Exercise

chapter 21|24 pages

Glutamine and the Immune System

ByLuise V. Marino, Philip C. Calder

chapter 22|18 pages

Glutamine and Exercise and Immune System

ByMarcelo Macedo Rogero, Ronaldo Vagner Thomatieli dos Santos

chapter 23|12 pages

Role of Glutamine in Exercise-Induced Immunodepression in Man

ByLindy Castell, Natalie Redgrave

part X|2 pages

Glutamine and Aging

chapter 24|20 pages

Glutamine Metabolism in Old Age

ByDominique Meynial-Denis

part XI|2 pages


chapter 25|8 pages

Sum Up and Future Research

ByDominique Meynial-Denis