This edited book presents an array of approaches on how human factors theory and research addresses the challenges associated with combat identification. Special emphasis is placed on reducing human error that leads to fratricide, which is the unintentional death or injury of friendly personnel by friendly weapons during an enemy engagement. Although fratricide has been a concern since humans first engaged in combat operations, it gained prominence during the Persian Gulf War. To reduce fratricide, advances in technological approaches to enhance combat identification (e.g., Blue Force Tracker) should be coupled with the application of human factors principles to reduce human error. The book brings together a diverse group of authors from academic and military researchers to government contractors and commercial developers to provide a single volume with broad appeal. Human Factors Issues in Combat Identification is intended for the larger human factors community within academia, the military and other organizations that work with the military such as government contractors and commercial developers as well as others interested in combat identification issues including military personnel and policy makers.

chapter 1|28 pages


Preventing Errors in the Heat of Battle: Formal and Informal Learning Strategies to Prevent Teamwork Breakdowns
ByKatherine A. Wilson, Eduardo Salas, Dee H. Andrews

section 1|2 pages

Cognitive Processes

chapter 2|16 pages

Factors Affecting Speed and Accuracy of Response Selection in Operational Environments

ByRobert W. Proctor, Motonori Yamaguchi

chapter 3|20 pages

Measuring Vigilance Abilities to Enhance Combat Identification Performance

ByClark Shingledecker, David E. Weldon, Kyle Behymer, Benjamin Simpkins, Elizabeth Lerner, Joel Warm, Gerald Matthews, Victor Finomore, Tyler Shaw, Jennifer S. Murphy

chapter 4|16 pages

Dimensions of Spatial Ability and their Influence on Performance with Unmanned Systems

ByThomas Fincannon, A. William Evans, Florian Jentsch, Joseph Keebler

section 2|2 pages

Visual Discrimination

chapter 5|14 pages

The Effects of Conjunctive Search and Response Mappings on Automatic Performance in a Complex Visual Task

ByCleotilde Gonzalez, Rick P. Thomas, Poornima Madhavan

chapter 6|14 pages

What Visual Discrimination of Fractal Textures Can Tell Us about Discrimination of Camouflaged Targets

ByVincent A. Billock, Douglas W. Cunningham, Brian H. Tsou

chapter 7|16 pages

A Cognitive Basis for Friend-Foe Misidentification of Vehicles in Combat

ByJoseph R. Keebler, Lee W. Sciarini, Florian Jentsch, Denise Nicholson, Thomas Fincannon

section 2|2 pages

Situation Awareness

chapter 9|14 pages

Team Coordination and Shared Situation Awareness in Combat Identification

ByCheryl A. Bolstad, Mica R. Endsley, Haydee M. Cuevas

chapter 10|10 pages

The Use of Soft Sensors and I-Space for Improved Combat ID

ByDavid L. Hall, Stan Aungst

section 4|2 pages


chapter 13|12 pages

A Team Training Paradigm for Better Combat Identification

ByWayne Shebilske, Georgiy Levchuk, Jared Freeman, Kevin Gildea

chapter 14|10 pages

Analysis of the Tasks Conducted by Forward Air Controllers and Pilots during Simulated Close Air Support Missions: Supporting the Development of the INCIDER Model 1

ByBeejal Mistry, Gareth Croft, David Dean, Julie Gadsden, Gareth Conway, Katherine Cornes

chapter 15|20 pages

Team Cognition During a Simulated Close Air Support Exercise: Results from a New Behavioral Rating Instrument 1

ByJerzy Jarmasz, Richard Zobarich, Lora Bruyn-Martin, Tab Lamoureux

section 5|2 pages


chapter 16|16 pages

Evaluating Reliance on Combat Identification Systems: The Role of Reliability Feedback 1

ByHeather F. Neyedli, Lu Wang, Greg A. Jamieson, Justin G. Hollands

chapter 17|12 pages

The Effects of Automation Bias on Operator Compliance and Reliance

ByStephen Rice, Krisstal Clayton, Jason McCarley

chapter 18|22 pages

An Examination of the Social, Cognitive, and Motivational Factors that Affect Automation Reliance

ByMary T. Dzindolet, Linda G. Pierce, Hall P. Beck

chapter 19|14 pages

On Fratricide and the Operational Reliability of Target Identification Decision Aids in Combat Identification

ByJohn K. Hawley, Anna L. Mares, Jessica L. Marcon

chapter 20|14 pages

The Case for Active Fratricide Avoidance in Net-Centric C2 Systems

ByJohn Barnett