Containing chapter contributions from over 130 experts, this unique publication is the first handbook dedicated to the physics and technology of X-ray imaging, offering extensive coverage of the field. This highly comprehensive work is edited by one of the world’s leading experts in X-ray imaging physics and technology and has been created with guidance from a Scientific Board containing respected and renowned scientists from around the world.

The book's scope includes 2D and 3D X-ray imaging techniques from soft-X-ray to megavoltage energies, including computed tomography, fluoroscopy, dental imaging and small animal imaging, with several chapters dedicated to breast imaging techniques. 2D and 3D industrial imaging is incorporated, including imaging of artworks. Specific attention is dedicated to techniques of phase contrast X-ray imaging.

The approach undertaken is one that illustrates the theory as well as the techniques and the devices routinely used in the various fields. Computational aspects are fully covered, including 3D reconstruction algorithms, hard/software phantoms, and computer-aided diagnosis. Theories of image quality are fully illustrated. Historical, radioprotection, radiation dosimetry, quality assurance and educational aspects are also covered.

This handbook will be suitable for a very broad audience, including graduate students in medical physics and biomedical engineering; medical physics residents; radiographers; physicists and engineers in the field of imaging and non-destructive industrial testing using X-rays; and scientists interested in understanding and using X-ray imaging techniques.

The handbook's editor, Dr. Paolo Russo, has over 30 years’ experience in the academic teaching of medical physics and X-ray imaging research. He has authored several book chapters in the field of X-ray imaging, is Editor-in-Chief of an international scientific journal in medical physics, and has responsibilities in the publication committees of international scientific organizations in medical physics.


  • Comprehensive coverage of the use of X-rays both in medical radiology and industrial testing
  • The first handbook published to be dedicated to the physics and technology of X-rays
  • Handbook edited by world authority, with contributions from experts in each field

part I|324 pages

Basic Physical and Technological Aspects

chapter 1|50 pages

Basic Physics of X-ray Interactions in Matter

ByRalf Hendrik Menk

chapter 2|40 pages

X-ray Tube Physics and Technology

ByRolf Behling

chapter 3|12 pages

X-ray Generators

ByRolf Behling

chapter 4|14 pages

Carbon Nanotube-Based Field Emission X-ray Technology

ByLei Zhang, Jianping Lu, Yueh Lee, Sha Chang, Otto Zhou

chapter 5|12 pages

Technology of Miniature X-ray Tubes

ByFumio Okuyama

chapter 6|8 pages

Technology of Pyroelectric X-ray Tubes

BySusumu Imashuku

chapter 7|16 pages

History of X-ray Tubes

ByRolf Behling

chapter 8|20 pages

Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Sources for Radiography and Tomography

ByGiorgio Margaritondo, Fauzia Albertin

chapter 9|10 pages

X-ray Shutters

ByNaresh Gandhi Kujala

chapter 10|18 pages

Calculation of X-ray Spectra

ByGavin Poludniowski

chapter 11|16 pages

Radiochromic Film Dosimetry for Radiology

ByNada Tomic, Slobodan Devic

chapter 12|20 pages

Computed Radiography

ByNobukazu Tanaka, Junji Morishita

chapter 13|22 pages

Photon-Counting Detectors for X-ray Imaging

ByMichela Esposito

chapter 14|14 pages

Image Quality

ByIan A. Cunningham, Tomi F. Nano, Terenz Escartin

chapter 15|34 pages

Image Quality in Attenuation-Based and Phase-Contrast-Based X-ray Imaging

ByTimur E. Gureyev, Yakov I. Nesterets

chapter 16|16 pages

Inverse Compton Scattering X-ray Sources

ByLuca Labate, Paolo Tomassini, Leonida A. Gizzi

part II|310 pages

X-ray Radiography and Fluoroscopy

chapter 18|24 pages

History of Radiology

ByAdrian M. K. Thomas

chapter 19|22 pages

Digital Mammography

ByAdriano Contillo, Angelo Taibi

chapter 20|14 pages

Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

ByGreeshma Agasthya, Alejandro Rodriguez-Ruiz, Ioannis Sechopoulos

chapter 21|22 pages

Fluoroscopy: Physics and Technology

ByAnnalisa Trianni

chapter 22|44 pages

Dental Radiography

ByRalf Kurt Willy Schulze

chapter 23|12 pages

Clinical Mammographic and Tomosynthesis Units

ByGisella Gennaro

chapter 24|38 pages

Physical Image Quality Evaluation of X-ray Detectors for Digital Radiography and Mammography

ByNicholas W. Marshall, Pascal Monnin

chapter 26|28 pages

Clinical Radiographic Units

ByMark F. McEntee

chapter 27|18 pages

Clinical Fluoroscopy Units

ByGyorgy Hegyi

chapter 28|12 pages

Physical Basis of X-ray Breast Imaging

ByChai Hong Yeong, Kwan Hoong Ng, Noriah Jamal

chapter 29|20 pages

Radiation Dose in X-ray Mammography and Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

ByDavid R. Dance

chapter 30|24 pages

Industrial Radiography

ByUwe Zscherpel, Uwe Ewert

chapter 31|16 pages

Forensic Radiology

ByClaire Robinson, Bruno Morgan, Guy N. Rutty

part III|334 pages

X-ray Computed Tomography

chapter 32|32 pages

X-ray Computed Tomography for Diagnostic Imaging—From Single-Slice to Multi-Slice

ByXiangyang Tang, Huiqiao Xie

chapter 33|24 pages

Analytical Reconstruction Methods in X-ray Computed Tomography

ByDaniele Panetta

chapter 34|20 pages

Iterative Reconstruction Methods in X-ray CT

ByGeert Van Eyndhoven, Jan Sijbers

chapter 35|36 pages

X-ray Cone Beam Computed Tomography

ByKai Yang

chapter 36|25 pages

Small Animal X-ray Computed Tomography

ByCristian T. Badea

chapter |1 pages

Historical Image Gallery

ByPaolo Russo

chapter 37|16 pages

Quality Assurance of X-ray Computer Tomography

ByDouglas Bollinger, Hua Li

chapter 38|14 pages

Radiation Dose in X-ray Computed Tomography

ByRobert L. Dixon

chapter 39|12 pages

Dual-Energy X-ray Computed Tomography

ByKostas Perisinakis

chapter 40|36 pages

Soft X-ray Tomography: Techniques and Applications

ByAxel A. Ekman, Tia E. Plautz, Jian-Hua Chen, Gerry McDermott, Mark A. Le Gros, Carolyn A. Larabell

chapter 41|14 pages

4D X-ray Computed Tomography

ByAmit Mehndiratta, Soenke H. Bartling, Rajiv Gupta

chapter 42|20 pages

Dental and Maxillofacial Cone Beam Computed Tomography

ByWilliam C. Scarfe, Christos Angelopoulos, Bruno Correa de Azevedo, Shiva Toghyani, Allan G. Farman

chapter 43|10 pages

High-Speed X-ray Computed Tomography

ByWilliam R. B. Lionheart, William M. Thompson

chapter 44|20 pages

Kilovoltage and Megavoltage Imaging in Radiotherapy

ByYou Zhang, Jing Wang

chapter 45|16 pages

Industrial X-ray Computed Tomography

ByBernhard Illerhaus, Andreas Staude

chapter 46|16 pages

Industrial X-ray Computed Tomography Scanners

BySimon Zabler, Michael Böhnel, Nils Reims, Michael Salamon, Christian Fella

chapter 47|10 pages

Dimensional Metrology for Industrial Computed Tomography

ByJochen Hiller, Thomas S. Miller, Peter Hornberger

chapter 48|10 pages

Influence of Scatter in X-ray Imaging and Scatter Correction Methods for Industrial Applications

ByCarina Stritt, Mathieu Plamondon, Jürgen Hofmann, Alexander Flisch

part IV|398 pages

Phase-Contrast X-ray Imaging and Other Aspects

chapter 49|28 pages

Theory of X-ray Phase-Contrast Imaging

ByDaniele Pelliccia, Marcus J. Kitchen, Kaye S. Morgan

chapter 50|26 pages

Non-Interferometric Techniques for X-ray Phase-Contrast Biomedical Imaging

ByPaul Claude Diemoz, Alberto Bravin, Paola Coan, Luigi Rigon

chapter 51|24 pages

X-ray Phase-Contrast Mammography

ByPekka Suortti, Jani Keyriläinen, William Thomlinson

chapter 52|16 pages

X-ray Phase-Contrast Tomosynthesis Imaging

ByKe Li, Guang-Hong Chen

chapter 53|18 pages

Crystal Analyzer-Based X-ray Phase-Contrast Imaging

ByMasami Ando, Tetsuya Yuasa

chapter 54|24 pages

X-ray Scattering: Analytical Applications and Imaging

ByAntonio Brunetti, Roberto Cesareo

chapter 55|28 pages

Tissue Substitute Materials for Diagnostic X-ray Imaging

BySrinivasan Vedantham

chapter 56|24 pages

Phantoms for Image Quality and Dose Assessment

ByAlessandra Tomal, Paulo Roberto Costa

chapter 57|26 pages

Software Phantoms for X-ray Radiography and Tomography

ByKristina Bliznakova

chapter 58|26 pages

Radiography and Computed Tomography for Works of Art

ByMaria Pia Morigi, Franco Casali

chapter 59|20 pages

Computer-Aided Diagnosis for X-ray Imaging

ByLia Morra, Silvia Delsanto, Giulia Grazzini

chapter 60|18 pages

Computer Analysis of Mammograms

ByChisako Muramatsu, Hiroshi Fujita

chapter 61|10 pages

Databases for Mammography

ByMaria Evelina Fantacci

chapter 62|16 pages

Computer Analysis of Computer Tomography Images for Lung Nodule Detection

ByMaria Evelina Fantacci, Alessandra Retico

chapter 63|8 pages

Display Optimization and Human Factors

ByElizabeth A. Krupinski

chapter 64|14 pages

Display for Medical Imaging and DICOM Grayscale Standard Display Function Fundamentals

ByWei-Chung Cheng, Aldo Badano

chapter 65|12 pages

Quality Control of Medical Imaging Displays

ByAlisa Walz-Flannigan, Heather Weber

chapter 66|20 pages

Radiation Protection Issues in X-ray Radiology, Fluoroscopy, and Computed Tomography

ByFrancis R. Verdun, Nick Ryckx

chapter 67|8 pages

Educational Aspects in Radiography, Physics, and Technology

ByStelios Christofides