The twentieth century witnessed an unprecedented increase in the number of capital cities worldwide – in 1900 there were only about forty, but by 2000 there were more than two hundred. And this, surely, is reason enough for a book devoted to the planning and development of capital cities in the twentieth century.

However, the focus here is not only on recently created capitals. Indeed, the case studies which make up the core of the book show that, while very different, the development of London or Rome presents as great a challenge to planners and politicians as the design and building of Brasília or Chandigarh. Put simply, this book sets out to explore what makes capital cities different from other cities, why their planning is unique, and why there is such variety from one city to another.

Sir Peter Hall’s ‘Seven Types of Capital City’ and Lawrence Vale’s ‘The Urban Design of Twentieth Century Capital Cities’ provide the setting for the fifteen case studies which follow – Paris, Moscow and St Petersburg, Helsinki, London, Tokyo, Washington, Canberra, Ottawa-Hull, Brasília, New Delhi, Berlin, Rome, Chandigarh, Brussels, New York. To bring the book to a close Peter Hall looks to the future of capital cities in the twenty-first century.

For anyone with an interest in urban planning and design, architectural, planning and urban history, urban geography, or simply capital cities and why they are what they are, Planning Twentieth Century Capital Cities will be the key source book for a long time to come.

chapter 1|7 pages

Capital Cities in the Twentieth Century

ByDavid L.A. Gordon

chapter 2|7 pages

Seven Types of Capital City

ByPeter Hall

chapter 3|23 pages

The Urban Design of Twentieth Century Capitals

ByLawrence J. Vale

chapter 5|15 pages

Moscow and St Petersburg: A Tale of Two Capitals

ByMichael H. Lang

chapter 6|14 pages

Helsinki: From Provincial to National Centre

ByLaura Kolbe

chapter 7|14 pages

London: The Contradictory Capital

ByDennis Hardy

chapter 8|14 pages

Tokyo: Forged by Market Forces and Not the Power of Planning

ByShun-ichi J. Watanabe

chapter 9|15 pages

Washington: The DC’s History of Unresolved Planning Confl icts

ByIsabelle Gournay

chapter 10|20 pages

Canberra: Where Landscape is Pre-eminent

ByChristopher Vernon

chapter 11|14 pages

Ottawa-Hull: Lumber Town to National Capital

ByDavid L.A. Gordon

chapter 12|18 pages

Brasília: A Capital in the Hinterland

ByGeraldo Nogueira Batista, Sylvia Ficher, Francisco Leitão and Dionísio Alves de França

chapter 14|17 pages

Berlin: Capital under Changing Political Regimes

ByWolfgang Sonne

chapter 15|13 pages

Rome: Where Great Events Not Regular Planning Bring Development

ByGiorgio Piccinato

chapter 16|11 pages

Chandigarh: India’s Modernist Experiment

ByNihal Perera

chapter 17|16 pages

Brussels: Capital of Belgium and ‘Capital of Europe’

ByCarola Hein

chapter 18|17 pages

New York City: Super-Capital – Not by Government Alone

ByEugenie L. Birch

chapter 19|5 pages

What is the Future of Capital Cities?

ByPeter Hall