The chapters in Thinking With Data are based on presentations given at the 33rd Carnegie Symposium on Cognition. The Symposium was motivated by the confluence of three emerging trends: (1) the increasing need for people to think effectively with data at work, at school, and in everyday life, (2) the expanding technologies available to support peopl

part |1 pages

Reasoning About Uncertainty and Variation

chapter 1|24 pages

Separating Signal From Noise: Children’s Understanding of Error and Variability in Experimental Outcomes

Amy M. Masnick
ByAmy M. Masnick, David Klahr, Bradley J. Morris

chapter 2|37 pages

Complex Visual Data Analysis, Uncertainty, and Representation

Christian D. Schunn Lelyn D. Saner
ByUniversity of Pittsburgh

chapter 3|21 pages

“I Don’t Know What’s Going On There”: The Use of Spatial Transformations to Deal With and Resolve Uncertainty in Complex Visualizations

Susan Bell Trickett
BySusan Bell Trickett, J. Gregory Trafton, Lelyn Saner, Christian D. Schunn

chapter 4|30 pages

Students’ Conceptual Understanding of the Standard Deviation

Robert C. delMas Yan Liu
ByUniversity of Minnesota

chapter 5|31 pages

Using Students’ Informal Notions of Variability to Develop an Understanding of Formal Measures of Variability

Joan Garfield
ByJoan Garfield, Robert C. delMas, and Beth Chance

chapter 6|28 pages

Contrasting Emerging Conceptions of Distribution in Contexts of Error and Natural Variation

ByRichard Lehrer, Leona Schauble

chapter 7|13 pages

Discussion of Part I: Variation in the Meaning and Learning of Variation

Gaea Leinhardt Jorge Larreamendy-Joerns
ByUniversity of Pittsburgh

part |1 pages

Statistical Reasoning and Data Analysis

chapter 8|13 pages

Do Naïve Theories Ever Go Away? Using Brain and Behavior to Understand Changes in Concepts

Kevin N. Dunbar Jonathan A. Fugelsang
ByKevin N. Dunbar, Jonathan A. Fugelsang, Courtney Stein

chapter 9|25 pages

Intricacies of Statistical Inference and Teachers’ Understandings of Them

Patrick W. Thompson Yan Liu
ByArizona State University

chapter 11|25 pages

Designing a Data Analysis Tool for Learners

Clifford Konold
ByUniversity of Massachusetts Amherst

chapter 12|26 pages

Data-Analysis Skills: What and How Are Students Learning?

Marsha C. Lovett Norma M. Chang
ByCarnegie Mellon University

chapter 13|26 pages

Reconsidering Prior Knowledge

Daniel L. Schwartz David Sears Jammie Chang
ByStanford University

chapter 14|12 pages

Discussion of Part II: Statistical Reasoning and Data Analysis

Kenneth R. Koedinger
ByCarnegie Mellon University

part |1 pages

Learning From and Making Decisions With Data

chapter 15|30 pages

Causal Learning From Observations and Manipulations

David Danks
ByCarnegie Mellon University

chapter 16|31 pages

Statistical Reasoning: Valid Intuitions Put To Use

Peter Sedlmeier
ByChemnitz University of Technology

chapter 17|19 pages

Adolescents’ Thinking About the Risks of Sexual Behaviors

ByWändi Bruine de Bruin, Julie S. Downs, and Baruch Fischhoff

chapter 18|12 pages

Discussion of Part III: Learning and Making Decisions With Data

ByMarie Burrage, Marina Epstein, Priti Shah