In 1978 and 1979 revolutions in Afghanistan and Iran marked a shift in the balance of power in South West Asia and the world. Then, as now, the world is once more aware that tribalism is no anachronism in a struggle for political and cultural self-determination. This books provides historical and anthropological perspectives necessary to the eventual understanding of the events surrounding the revolutions.

chapter 1|82 pages


chapter 3|31 pages

Khan and Khel

Dialectics of Pakhtun Tribalism

chapter 5|20 pages

Tribes and States in Waziristan

chapter 7|29 pages

ABD Al-Rahman's North-West Frontier

The Pashtun Colonisation of Afghan Turkistan

chapter 8|22 pages

Why Tribes Have Chiefs

A Case from Baluchistan

chapter 10|17 pages

Tribes, Confederation and the State

An Historical Overview of the Bakhtiari and Iran

chapter 11|6 pages

On the Bakhtiari

Comments on Tribes, Confederation and the State

chapter 12|27 pages

The Enemy Within

Limitations on Leadership in the Bakhtiari

chapter 13|37 pages

Kurdish Tribes and the State of Iran

The Case of Simko's Revolt

chapter 14|35 pages

Nomads and Commissars in the Mughan Steppe

The Shahsevan Tribes in the Great Game

chapter 15|13 pages

The Tribal Society and its Enemies

chapter 16|5 pages

Tribe and State

Some Concluding Remarks