The birds, animals, insects, trees and plants encountered by the majority of the world’s people are those that survive in, adapt to, or are introduced to, urban areas. Some of these organisms give great pleasure; others invade, colonise and occupy neglected and hidden areas such as derelict land and sewers. Urban areas have a high biodiversity and nature within cities provides many ecosystem services including cooling the urban area, reducing urban flood risk, filtering pollutants, supplying food, and providing accessible recreation. Yet, protecting urban nature faces competition from other urban land uses.

The Handbook of Urban Ecology analyses this biodiversity and complexity and provides the science to guide policy and management to make cities more attractive, more enjoyable, and better for our own health and that of the planet. This Handbook contains 50 interdisciplinary contributions from leading academics and practitioners from across the world to provide an in-depth coverage of the main elements of practical urban ecology. It is divided into six parts, dealing with the philosophies, concepts and history of urban ecology; followed by consideration of the biophysical character of the urban environment and the diverse habitats found within it. It then examines human relationships with urban nature, the health, economic and environmental benefits of urban ecology before discussing the methods used in urban ecology and ways of putting the science into practice.

The Handbook offers a state-of the art guide to the science, practice and value of urban ecology. The engaging contributions provide students and practitioners with the wealth of interdisciplinary information needed to manage the biota and green landscapes in urban areas.

part |2 pages

Part 1 Context, history and philosophies

chapter |4 pages


ByIan Douglas

chapter 1|10 pages

Urban ecology: Definitions and goals

ByN. E. McIntyre

chapter 2|9 pages

The analysis of cities as ecosystems

ByIan Douglas

chapter 3|12 pages

Urban ecology and industrial ecology

ByXuemei Bai, Heinz Schandl

chapter 4|10 pages

Urban areas in the context of human ecology

ByRoderick J. Lawrence

chapter 7|10 pages

Urban natural histories to urban ecologies: The growth of the study of urban nature

ByIan Douglas, David Goode

chapter 9|4 pages

How much is urban nature worth? And for whom? Thoughts from ecological economics

ByAnna Chiesura, Joan Martínez-Alier

part |2 pages

Part 2 The urban ecological environment

chapter |4 pages


ByIan Douglas

chapter 10|17 pages

Climate of cities

ByC.S.B. Grimmond

chapter 11|12 pages

Urban heat islands

ByT.R. Oke

chapter 12|16 pages

Urban effects on precipitation and associated convective processes

ByJ.M. Shepherd, J.A. Stallins, M.L. Jin and T.L. Mote

chapter 13|11 pages

Urban hydrology

ByIan Douglas

chapter 14|5 pages

Urban geomorphology

ByIan Douglas

chapter 15|23 pages

Urban soils

ByPeter J. Marcotullio

chapter 16|11 pages

The process of natural succession in urban areas

ByWayne C. Zipperer

chapter 18|12 pages

Creative conservation

ByGrant Luscombe, Richard Scott

part |2 pages

Part 3 The nature of urban habitats

chapter |4 pages


ByIan Douglas

chapter 19|13 pages

Walls and paved surfaces: Urban complexes with limited water and nutrients

ByC. Philip Wheater

chapter 20|12 pages

Urban cliffs

ByJeremy Lundholm

chapter 21|10 pages

Suburban mosaic of houses, roads, gardens and mature trees

ByIan Douglas

chapter 22|15 pages

Urban wildlife corridors: Conduits for movement or linear habitat?

ByIan Douglas, Jonathan P. Sadler

chapter 23|12 pages

Landscaped parks and open spaces

ByM. Hermy

chapter 25|12 pages

Urban contaminated land

ByMichael O. Rivett, Jonathan P. Sadler, Bob C. Barnes

chapter 27|14 pages

Wetlands in urban environments

ByJoan G. Ehrenfeld, Monica Palta, Emilie Stander

chapter 28|9 pages

Urban animal ecology

ByPeter J. Jarvis

chapter 29|10 pages

Feral animals in the urban environment

ByPeter J. Jarvis

part |2 pages

Part 4 Ecosystem services and urban ecology

chapter |4 pages


ByIan Douglas

chapter 30|8 pages

Intrinsic and aesthetic values of urban nature: A journalist’s view from London

ByLondon David Nicholson- Lord

chapter 32|14 pages

Urban nature and human physical health

ByJenna H. Tilt

chapter 33|16 pages

Urban nature: Human psychological and community health

ByRod Matsuoka, William Sullivan

chapter 34|26 pages

Street trees and the urban environment

ByGerald F.M. Dawe

chapter 35|9 pages

Urban gardens and biodiversity

ByKevin J. Gaston, Sian Gaston

part |2 pages

Part 5 Methodologies

chapter |4 pages


ByIan Douglas

chapter 36|13 pages

Urban habitat analysis

ByIan Douglas

chapter 37|10 pages

Urban habitat type mapping

ByPeter J. Jarvis

chapter 38|15 pages

Invasive species and their response to climate change

ByIan Douglas

chapter 39|18 pages

Urban biogeochemical flux analysis

ByNancy B. Grimm, Rebecca L. Hale, Elizabeth M. Cook, David M. Iwaniec

chapter 40|8 pages

Urban metabolism analysis

ByShu- Li Huang and Chun- Lin Lee

part |2 pages

Part 6 Applications and policy implications

chapter |6 pages


ByIan Douglas

chapter 41|12 pages

Delivering urban greenspace for people and wildlife

ByJohn Box

chapter 42|12 pages

Urban areas and the biosphere reserve concept

ByPete Frost, Glen Hyman

chapter 43|11 pages

Urban ecology and sustainable urban drainage

ByPeter Worrall, Sarah Little

chapter 44|11 pages

Green roofs, urban vegetation and urban runoff

ByJoachim T. Tourbier

chapter 46|10 pages

Creative use of therapeutic green spaces

ByAmbra Burls

chapter 48|9 pages

Biodiversity as a statutory component of urban planning

ByDavid Goode

chapter 49|6 pages

Making urban ecology a key element in urban development and planning

ByJohn Stuart- Murray

chapter 50|16 pages

Towards Ecopolis: New technologies, new philosophies and new developments

ByRusong Wang, Paul Downton, Ian Douglas

chapter |2 pages


ByIan Douglas