In Christian theology, the teaching that Christ possessed both a human and divine will is central to the doctrine of two natures, but it also represents a logical paradox, raising questions about how a person can be both impeccable and subject to temptation. This volume explores these questions through an analytic theology approach, bringing together 15 original papers that explore the implications of a strong libertarian concept of free will for Christology. With perspectives from systematic theologians, philosophers, and biblical scholars, several chapters also offer a comparative theology approach, examining the concept of impeccability in the Muslim tradition.

Therefore, this volume will be of interest to scholars and graduate students working in analytic theology, biblical scholarship, systematic theology, and Christian-Islamic dialogue.

chapter |11 pages


Impeccability and temptation
ByJohannes Grössl

part I|103 pages

Was Christ sinless? Exegetical and historical approaches

chapter 1|18 pages

The sinlessness of Christ and human perfection

ByJeffrey Siker

chapter 2|17 pages

Sinless or not?

The baptism by John and Jesus’ consciousness of his personal sins
ByAngelika Strotmann

chapter 3|25 pages

“He himself was tempted” (Hebr 2:18)

The temptation of Jesus in the New Testament
ByLena Lütticke, Hans-Ulrich Weidemann

chapter 4|19 pages

God’s work and human’s contribution

Jesus’ sinlessness in Theodore of Mopsuestia’s Christology
ByCornelia Dockter

chapter 5|22 pages

Conciliar Christology, impeccability, and temptation

ByTimothy Pawl

part II|115 pages

Is Christ impeccable? Systematical approaches

chapter 6|24 pages

Seven questions ingredient to Jesus Christ’s temptation

ByJohn E. McKinley

chapter 7|21 pages

The Hypostatic Union and the freedom of Christ

ByThomas Schärtl

chapter 8|19 pages

Classical Theism, Christology, and the Two Sons Worry

ByR.T. Mullins

chapter 9|16 pages

Peccable as Son of Man, impeccable as Son of God

An attempt to reconcile freedom and impeccability
ByDominikus Kraschl

chapter 10|17 pages

The divine and human will of Christ

ByOliver D. Crisp

chapter 11|16 pages

Deification and the divided-consciousness-view

ByJohannes Grössl

part III|53 pages

Human perfection and sinlessness in Islamic theology

chapter 12|18 pages

The scope of ‘iṣma and Qur’anic evidence

ByMohammad Haghani Fazl

chapter 13|18 pages

Inerrancy and exaggeration in Shi‘i theology

ByMuhammad Legenhausen

chapter 14|15 pages

The theological concept of imamate

How Imamis reconcile human perfection and free will
ByVahid Mahdavi Mehr

chapter |10 pages


Impeccability and sinlessness in Islam and Christianity
ByKlaus von Stosch