This Handbook discusses the new political and social realities in Turkey from a range of perspectives, emphasizing both changes as well as continuities. Contextualizing recent developments, the chapters, written by experts in their fields, combine analytical depth with a broad overview.

In the last few years alone, Turkey has experienced a failed coup attempt; a prolonged state of emergency; the development of a presidential system based on the supreme power of the head of state; a crackdown on traditional and new media, universities and civil society organizations; the detention of journalists, mayors and members of parliament; the establishment of political tutelage over the judiciary; and a staggering economic crisis. It has also terminated talks with the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK); intervened in and occupied mountainous border areas in northern Iraq to fight that organization; occupied Afrin and strips of territory in northern Syria; intervened in Libya; articulated an assertive transnational politics toward “kin” across the world; strained its relations with the European Union and the US, while developing relations with Russia; flirted with China’s intercontinental Belt and Road Initiative; and carved out a presence in Africa, to name just a few of the most recent developments.

This volume provides a comprehensive and wide-ranging overview of the making of modern Turkey. It is a key reference for students and scholars interested in political economy, security studies, international relations and Turkish studies.

chapter 1|9 pages


ByJoost Jongerden

chapter 2|14 pages

Politics and ideology

Party and opposition in the late Ottoman and early republican period
ByJames Ryan

chapter 3|13 pages

Violence against the Kurds in the Turkish Republic

ByUğur Ümit Üngör, Ayhan Işık

chapter 4|14 pages

Remaking Turkey's polity and cultural landscapes

ByZeynep Kezer

chapter 5|12 pages

Refugees of the 1923 population exchange between Turkey and Greece

Greek efforts for integration and assimilation
ByEleni Kyramargiou

chapter 6|12 pages

The making of a national city

From Mezre to Elazığ
ByAli Sipahi

chapter 7|14 pages

Populism in Turkey

From a political style to a model for global politics?
ByM. Asım Karaömerlioğlu

chapter 8|14 pages

Turkish secular nationalism as religion

ByFerhat Kentel

chapter 9|14 pages

Parties and politics in Turkey

ByElise Massicard

chapter 10|14 pages

Civil–Military relations in Turkey

Patterns and Possibilities
ByBurak Bilgehan Özpek

chapter 11|13 pages

Coups and state formation in Turkey

ByNikos Christofis

chapter 12|9 pages

Constitutions and political systems

ByErgun Özbudun

chapter 13|15 pages

Competitive authoritarianism in Turkey under the AKP rule

ByBerk Esen

chapter 14|12 pages

Politics of truth and post-truth

ByHakkı Taş

chapter 15|12 pages

Kurdish politics in Turkey

ByCengiz Gunes

chapter 16|13 pages

Turkish nationalism and patriarchy

BySimten Coşar

chapter 17|14 pages

Youth politics

ByAyça Alemdaroğlu

chapter 18|11 pages

Tracing the reverse history of homosexuality from the Ottoman Empire to contemporary Turkey

From tolerance to discrimination
ByCeylan Engin, Zeynep Özbarlas

chapter 19|13 pages

Mad patriots

Militarized masculinities and nation-building in contemporary Turkish novels
ByÇimen Günay-Erkol

chapter 20|14 pages

Contemporary cinema of Turkey

Being and becoming
ByGönül Dönmez-Colin

chapter 21|12 pages

Musical diversity and the struggle for identities

ByMartin Greve

chapter 22|13 pages

The political economy of Turkey in the last two centuries

ByBora Selçuk, Murat Öztürk

chapter 23|15 pages

The Kurdish question in contemporary Turkey

A political economy perspective
ByVeli Yadirgi

chapter 24|12 pages

“Concrete” steps toward modernization

Dam-, state-, and nation-building in southeastern Turkey
ByArda Bilgen

chapter 25|13 pages

Political economy of environmental conflicts in Turkey

From the Bergama resistance to the Gezi protests and beyond
ByMurat Arsel, Fikret Adaman, Bengi Akbulut

chapter 26|13 pages

Agriculture and rural life in Turkey

ByMurat Öztürk, Joost Jongerden, Andy Hilton

chapter 27|12 pages

The layers of an onion

Food and nation in Turkey
ByJohn William Day

chapter 28|13 pages

Migration from rural Anatolia to metropolitan cities

ByTahire Erman

chapter 30|12 pages

Civilizing space

Addressing disorder in rural and urban landscapes
ByJoost Jongerden

chapter 31|13 pages

Social movements and urban activism in Turkey

ByChristopher Houston

chapter 32|20 pages

Religious movements in Turkey


chapter 33|14 pages

The quest for cultural power

Islamism, culture and art in Turkey 1
ByÖzgür Yaren, Cenk Saraçoğlu, Irmak Karademir-Hazır

chapter 35|12 pages

Turkey's responses to refugees

Past and present
ByAhmet İçduygu, Damla B. Aksel

chapter 36|13 pages

“Turkey is bigger than Turkey”

Diaspora-building and the transnational politics of the Turkish state
ByBanu Şenay

chapter 37|11 pages

Turkey and the West

Dealignment in contemporary times
BySinan Ciddi

chapter 38|15 pages

Turkey and the Middle East

ByMichael M. Gunter