This companion provides the most comprehensive and up-to-date comparative overview of the cyber-security strategies and doctrines of the major states and actors in Europe, North America, South America, Africa, and Asia.

The volume offers an introduction to each nation’s cyber-security strategy and policy, along with a list of resources in English that may be consulted for those wishing to go into greater depth. Each chapter is written by a leading academic or policy specialist, and contains the following sections:

  • overview of national cyber-security strategy;
  • concepts and definitions;
  • exploration of cyber-security issues as they relate to international law and governance;
  • critical examinations of cyber partners at home and abroad;
  • legislative developments and processes;
  • dimensions of cybercrime and cyberterrorism;
  • implications of cyber-security policies and strategies.

This book will be of much interest to students and practitioners in the fields of cyber-security, national security, strategic studies, foreign policy, and international relations.

chapter |7 pages


Cybersecurity strategy and policy in a comparative context
ByMary Manjikian, Scott N. Romaniuk

part Part I|240 pages


chapter 1|15 pages

Securing the Kingdom's Cyberspace

Cybersecurity and cyber intelligence in Spain
ByRubén Arcos

chapter 2|10 pages

Albania's Cybersecurity Pivot

Between Western architectures and great power competition
ByAlexander Fotescu, Mihai Chihaia

chapter 3|15 pages

Armenian National Policy in Cyber Space

Toward a global cyber security architecture
ByRuben Elamiryan

chapter 4|11 pages

Czech Republic

A new cyber security leader in Central Europe
ByLucie Kadlecová, Michaela Semecká

chapter 5|11 pages

Cyber Security in the French Republic

ByAmber Darwish, Scott N. Romaniuk

chapter 6|16 pages

Germany's Cybersecurity Strategy

Confronting future challenges
ByScott N. Romaniuk, Michael Claus

chapter 7|10 pages

Cybersecurity of Poland

Legal and organizational framework
ByDominika Dziwisz

chapter 8|12 pages

Hungary's Evolving Cyber Security Strategy

ByAnnamária Beláz, Dániel Berzsenyi

chapter 9|10 pages

Romanian Cybersecurity Efforts

A work in progress
ByOana-Elena Brânda

chapter 10|11 pages

Italy's Cyber Security Architecture and Critical Infrastructure

ByTommaso De Zan, Giampiero Giacomello, Luigi Martino

chapter 11|11 pages

Dutch Cyber Security Strategy

ByJoost Bunk, Max Smeets

chapter 12|10 pages

Norwegian Cyber Security

A small-state approach to building international cyber cooperation
ByLars Gjesvik

chapter 13|12 pages

Seeking a New Order for Global Cybersecurity

The Russian approach to cyber-sovereignty
ByIlona Stadnik

chapter 14|11 pages


The Tatra Tiger without teeth
ByAaron T. Walter

chapter 15|9 pages


A fragmented cyber security
ByLaris Gaiser

chapter 16|6 pages

In the Line of Russian Aggression

Ukraine, hybrid warfare, and cybersecurity defense
ByOlya Zaporozhets, Oleksiy Syvak

chapter 17|10 pages

United Kingdom

Pragmatism and adaptability in the cyber realm
ByTim Stevens

chapter 18|10 pages

European Union

Policy, cohesion, and supranational experiences with cybersecurity
ByChristopher Whyte

chapter 19|15 pages


From the “Bronze Night” to cybersecurity pioneers
ByNick Robinson, Alex Hardy

chapter 20|23 pages

NATO's Evolving Cyber Security Policy and Strategy

ByScott N. Romaniuk, Alexander Fotescu, Mihai Chihaia

part Part II|143 pages

Asia and Australia

chapter 21|16 pages

Japan's Challenges, Capabilities, and Preparedness in Cyberspace

ByTobias Burgers, Scott N. Romaniuk, Cherry H. Y. Wong

chapter 22|9 pages

An Effective Shield?

Analyzing South Korea's cybersecurity strategy
ByYangmo Ku

chapter 23|8 pages

In the Line of Fire

Taiwan's legal, political, and technological cybersecurity posture
ByTobias Burgers, Moritz Hellmann, Scott N. Romaniuk

chapter 24|13 pages

Serving the People

China's cybersecurity policy and its implications
ByYu Cheng Chen, Tony Tai-Ting Liu, Scott N. Romaniuk

chapter 25|18 pages

Cybersecurity in a One-Party State

Policies and implications for Vietnam's economy and online freedom
ByPhan Le

chapter 26|10 pages

The Philippines' Cybersecurity Strategy

Strengthening partnerships to enhance cybersecurity capability
ByAmparo Pamela, H. Fabe, Ella Zarcilla-Genecela

chapter 27|12 pages


Balancing national development, national security, and cybersecurity policy
ByAhmad El-Muhammady

chapter 28|12 pages

Cyber Governance and Data Protection in India

A critical legal analysis
ByDebarati Halder, K. Jaishankar

chapter 29|7 pages


A national priority for Bangladesh
ByMd. Shariful Islam

chapter 30|11 pages

Managing a Digital Revolution

Cyber security capacity building in Myanmar 1
ByNiels Nagelhus Schia, Lars Gjesvik

chapter 31|14 pages

Australia's Cyber Security

A unique opportunity
ByAna Stuparu

chapter 32|11 pages


A leading actor in ASEAN cybersecurity
ByBenjamin Ang

part Part III|55 pages

The Middle East

chapter 33|14 pages

Between Multi-stakeholderism and Cyber Sovereignty

Understanding Turkey's cybersecurity strategy
ByTuba Eldem

chapter 34|9 pages


Cyber defense and security as national trademarks of international legitimacy
ByFabio Cristiano

chapter 35|9 pages

Palestine 1

Whose cyber security without cyber sovereignty?
ByFabio Cristiano

chapter 36|8 pages

The “Silicon Valley of the Middle East”

Cybersecurity, Saudi Arabia, and the path to Vision 2030
ByAnwar Ouassini, Kimeu W. Boynton

chapter 37|13 pages

The Islamic Republic of Iran's Cyber Security Strategy

Challenges in an era of cyber uncertainty
ByFiliz Katman

part Part IV|70 pages

The Americas

chapter 38|12 pages

Canada's Cyber Security in a Globalized Environment

Challenges and opportunities
ByKawser Ahmed

chapter 39|10 pages

The United States

A declining hegemon in cyberspace?
ByMary Manjikian

chapter 40|11 pages

Jamaica's Cybercrime and Cyber-Security

Policies, laws, and strategies
BySuzette A. Haughton

chapter 41|10 pages

Mexico and Cybersecurity

Policies, challenges, and concerns
BySaúl Mauricio Rodriguez-Hernandez, Nicolás Velásquez

chapter 42|10 pages

Colombia's Cybersecurity Predicament

State making, strategic challenges, and cyberspace
ByFlorent Frasson-Quenoz, César Augusto Niño González

chapter 43|15 pages

Cyber Security Governance in Brazil

Keeping silos or building bridges?
ByLouise Marie Hurel, Luisa Cruz Lobato

part Part V|104 pages


chapter 44|13 pages

Securitizing CyberSpace in Egypt

The dilemma of cybersecurity and democracy
ByBassant Hassib, Nardine Alnemr

chapter 45|9 pages

Security through the Arab Winter

Cyber strategies in post-revolutionary Tunisia
ByNabil Ouassini

chapter 46|10 pages

Cyber Security in Kenya

Balancing economic security and internet freedom
ByJames D. Fielder

chapter 47|11 pages

Cybersecurity Policy in Nigeria

A tool for national security and economic prosperity
ByAdewunmi J. Falode

chapter 48|9 pages

Cybersecurity in Ghana

Past, present, and future
ByAnwar Ouassini, Mostafa Amini

chapter 49|18 pages

Building a Cyber Fortress in Africa

Uganda's cyber security capacities and challenges
ByScott N. Romaniuk, David Andrew Omona

chapter 50|17 pages

Cybersecurity in South Africa

Status, governance, and prospects
ByRaymond Steenkamp Fonseca, Jo-Ansie van Wyk

chapter 51|15 pages

Algorithms of Oppression?

AU's cybersecurity policy and its enforcement in Africa
ByJoshua Oreoluwa Akintayo