This handbook examines Pakistan’s 70-year history from a number of different perspectives.
When Pakistan was born, it did not have a capital, a functioning government or a central
bank. The country lacked a skilled workforce. While the state was in the process of being
established, eight million Muslim refugees arrived from India, who had to be absorbed into a
population of 24 million people. However, within 15 years, Pakistan was the fastest growing
and transforming economy in the developing world, although the political evolution of the
country during this period was not equally successful. Pakistan has vast agricultural and
human resources, and its location promises trade, investment and other opportunities. Chapters in the volume, written by experts in the field, examine government and politics, economics,
foreign policy and environmental issues, as well as social aspects of Pakistan’s development,
including the media, technology, gender and education.

Shahid Javed Burki is an economist who has been a member of the faculty at Harvard University, USA, and Chief Economist, Planning and Development Department, Government of
the Punjab. He has also served as Minister of Finance in the Government of Pakistan, and has
written a number of books, and journal and newspaper articles. He joined the World Bank in
1974 as a senior economist and went on to serve in several senior positions. He was the (first)
Director of the China Department (1987–94) and served as the Regional Vice-President for
Latin America and the Caribbean during 1994–99. He is currently the Chair of the Board of
Directors of the Shahid Javed Burki Institute of Public Policy at NetSol (BIPP) in Lahore.

Iftekhar Ahmed Chowdhury is a career Bangladeshi diplomat and former Minister of Foreign
Affairs in the Government of Bangladesh (2007–08). He has a PhD in international relations
from the Australian National University, Canberra. He began his career as a member of the
civil service of Pakistan in 1969. Dr Chowdhury has held senior diplomatic positions in the
course of his career, including as Permanent Representative of Bangladesh to the United
Nations in New York (2001–07) and in Geneva (1996–2001), and was ambassador to Qatar,
Chile, Peru and the Vatican. He is currently a visiting senior research fellow at the Institute of
South Asian Studies, National University of Singapore.

Asad Ejaz Butt is the Director of the Burki Institute of Public Policy, Lahore, Pakistan.

chapter 1|20 pages

An overview

ByShahid Javed Burki

part Part I|2 pages

Politics, theory and practice

chapter 2|15 pages

The Pakistan story

ByShahid Javed Burki

chapter 3|12 pages

Unintended consequences

The long shadow of Partition on Pakistan and India
BySubrata K. Mitra

chapter 4|11 pages

Evolution of politics

ByShirin Tahir-Kheli

chapter 5|12 pages

Islam, society and politics in Pakistan

ByRiaz Hassan

chapter 6|12 pages

Sustained political progress

The supportive role of the military
ByJehangir Karamat

chapter 7|10 pages

The media in Pakistan

Idiom, ideology and the army
ByKhaled Ahmed

part Part II|2 pages

Pakistan’s dependence on the outside world

chapter 8|10 pages

Pakistan, power-play and a new South Asian paradigm

ByIftekhar Ahmed Chowdhury

chapter 9|11 pages

The making of foreign policy

Changing parameters
ByAziz Ahmad Khan

chapter 10|12 pages

Living in a rapidly changing world

ByShahid Javed Burki

chapter 11|14 pages

Defenders of the crescent

Pakistan-Saudi Arabia relations
ByFarah Jan

chapter 12|16 pages

Adversarial peace

India–Pakistan nuclear rivalry
ByFarah Jan

chapter 13|13 pages

A potential game changer

The China–Pakistan Economic Corridor
ByDaud Ahmad

part Part III|2 pages

Economic development and the importance of good governance

chapter 14|11 pages

Macroeconomic achievements and challenges

ByMasood Ahmed

chapter 15|11 pages

History of the development discourse in Pakistan

ByAsad Ejaz Butt

chapter 16|6 pages

Recent economic developments and prospects

ByFarrukh Iqbal

chapter 17|10 pages

Economic governance

ByIshrat Husain

part Part IV|2 pages

Social underdevelopment

chapter 19|8 pages

Getting technology to work for social development

ByAyub Ghauri

chapter 20|8 pages


New microcredit stories
ByMuhammad Saleem Ahmad Ranjha

chapter 21|10 pages

Private sector in education

ByShahid Kardar

chapter 22|10 pages

Educating and employing women

ByNasreen Kasuri

part Part V|2 pages

Energy and the environment

chapter 23|18 pages

The downward spiral of the quality of life in Pakistan

Is control possible, or even desired?
ByKulsum Ahmed

chapter 24|9 pages

Water problems and solutions

ByMahmood Ahmad

chapter 25|19 pages

Ways of solving the energy problem

ByZiad Alahdad

part Part VI|2 pages


chapter 26|4 pages

The last word

ByShahid Javed Burki

chapter 27|4 pages


ByShahid Javed Burki, Asad Ejaz Butt