First published in 1998, this volume asks: are new social classes in the making in eastern Europe? Are class issues withering away? How do different classes organize their lives, what kind of strategies do they adopt in East and West. Markku Kivinen brings Eastern Europe into the class debate. Recent sociological discussions have touched upon questions of class in Eastern Europe only very provisionally. On the other hand, old analyses of social stratification under conditions of 'actually existed socialism' are no longer relevant in the current situation. This book analyses processes of class relations in Eastern Europe from new theoretical vantage-points, using up-to-date empirical data. Under socialism, power was said to be vested in the working class. However, there was a constant tension between the 'holy proletariat' and the real life of the working class. Today, all political forces in Eastern Europe; leftist and liberal alike, are hankering for the middle class. This book explores the real processes in both East and West. This leads to more concrete political and even moral issues. The new 'sacred middle class' is challenged. The contributors adopt several conceptual approaches and perspectives which enter into a fruitful exchange in this book.

part I|2 pages


chapter 2|21 pages

‘New Russians’ and Social Change

Edited ByJohan Bäckman

chapter 3|3 pages

Entrepreneurs in Contemporary Political Structures

Edited ByGalina Eremicheva, Nina Solovieva

chapter 4|32 pages

Petty Production in Baltic Agriculture

Estonian and Lithuanian Models
Edited ByIlkka Alanen

chapter 5|16 pages

Attitudes towards Privatization

Winners and Losers
ByMeilute Taljunaite, Aleksandras Cesnavicius

part II|2 pages

Wage-Earning Middle Classes in Formation

chapter 6|29 pages

Formation of Class Structure under Conditions of Radical Social Change

An East European Experience 1
ByKazimierz M. Slomczynski

chapter 7|12 pages

The New Middle Strata in Modern Russia 1

ByVladimir Ilyin

chapter 8|19 pages

Non-Identical Twins

The Formation of the Middle Class in Israel
Edited ByAmir Ben-Porat

chapter 9|28 pages

Intragenerational Mobility and Middle Class Formation in Estonia1 1

Edited ByEllu Saar, Jelena Helemäe

part III|2 pages

Managers and Professionals

part IV|2 pages

Identity and Lifestyle of the Middle Classes

chapter 15|8 pages

The Middle Class and Civil Society

ByMihail Chernysh

chapter 16|13 pages

Capitalism and Democracy in Two Baltic Countries

ByJouko Nikula

chapter 19|28 pages

From Status to Class

The Emergence of a Class Society in Russia
ByTimo Piirainen